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Glossary - E
1. The study of the totality or patterns of relations between organisms and their environment.
2. The study of the interactions of living things, from ecos, the Greek word for 'living earth'. Certain plants and animals require specific conditions to live well and this is often termed the ecology of that plant or animal.
Of or pertaining to the soil in its ecological relationships. Resulting from, or influenced by, factors inherent in the soil or other substrate rather than by climatic factors.
elliptic (of leaves)
Oval-shaped, with narrowed ends.
Native or confined naturally to a particular, usually restricted, area or region; biologically a relic of once-wide distribution. cf. Exotic.
enriched fallow See also fallow
An agroforestry system in which useful, mainly woody species are sown or planted before cultivation ceases, or at the time it does, so that during the fallow period, or when the land is next cleared for cultivation, products are available for household use or market that would not otherwise have been there (for example, fruits, bamboo, rattans, medicinals).
1. A shoot arising spontaneous from an adventitious or dormant bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant. Also called coppice shoot, 'water shoot', water sprout'.
2. A fast-growing shoot arising from a dormant bud on an old stem or branch, often in response to stimulus such as removal of part of the canopy or tree thinning.
epigeal See also hypogeal
Growing or occurring above ground, commonly with reference to a mode of seed germination in which the cotyledons are carried above the ground on an axis (the hypocotyl)
epigynous (of flowers)
With the sepals, petals and stamens inserted near the top of the ovary.
Attached to the petals or corolla.
erect (of an ovule)
Upright, with its stalk at the base.
The detachment and movement of the solid material of the land surface by wind, moving water or ice, and by such processes as landslides and soil creep.
Volatile substance found in different parts of many plants, generally consisting of mixtures of hydrocarbons, alcohol, eskers, aldehyders and ketones.
evergreen See also deciduous
A plant that remains green in its dormant season; also a term applied to plants that are green throughout the year. Properly applied to plants and not to leaves, as it is due to the persistence of leaves. A better term is leaf retaining.
ex situ See also in situ
From outside. When applied to tree plantations, refers to a planting site distant from the seed collection site.
The outermost layer of the fruit wall.
Commonly used to refer to a plant or other organism introduced from a foreign country. For example, Grevillea robusta, which comes from Australia, is an exotic tree species in Kenya. Strictly, however, the term refers to a plant grown anywhere outside its natural range.
explant See also meristem culture, micropropagation
The excised fragment of a plant tissue or organ used to start a tissue culture.
Protruding, for example, of stamens projecting beyond a corolla.
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