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(English) : terminalia, umbrella tree
Terminalia mantaly grows 10-20 m with an erect stem and neat, conspicuously layered branches. Bark pale grey, smooth and rather mottled. Leaves smooth, bright green when young, in terminal rosettes of 4-9 unequal leaves on short, thickened stems; length up to 7 cm, apex broadly rounded, base very tapered, margin wavy. Flowers small, greenish, in erect spikes to 5 cm long. Fruit small oval; seeds, about 1.5 cm long with no obvious wings. The generic name comes from the Latin ‘terminalis’ (ending), and refers to the habit of the leaves being crowded at the ends of the shoots.
Ecology and distributionHistory of cultivation
Endemic of Madagascar, introduced to Senegal.
T. mantaly is usually evergreen at higher altitudes; it is drought resistant once established.
Native : Madagascar
Exotic : Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda
Propagation and managementPropagation methodsSince the tree rarely flowers at high altitudes, seed is collected from trees in hotter, low areas. Can be propagated from seedlings. Before sowing, the wing is removed from the seed, which is then soaked in cold water for 24 hours.
T. mantaly is a fast-growing species on good sites.
Functional usesProductsTannin or dyestuff: In its native habitat, the bark and wood are used for dyeing. Medicine: The bark and wood are used in Madagascar for treating dysentery.
Shade or shelter: An excellent spreading shade tree. Ornamental: Widely planted as a street and shade tree in Nairobi, Kenya, and as far as the coast.
BibliographyBirnie A. 1997. What tree is that? A beginner's guide to 40 trees in Kenya. Jacaranda designs Ltd.
ICRAF. 1992. A selection of useful trees and shrubs for Kenya: Notes on their identification, propagation and management for use by farming and pastoral communities. ICRAF.
Katende AB et al. 1995. Useful trees and shrubs for Uganda. Identification, Propagation and Management for Agricultural and Pastoral Communities. Regional Soil Conservation Unit (RSCU), Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).
Noad T, Birnie A. 1989. Trees of Kenya. General Printers, Nairobi.
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