Indonesia's per capita emissions come mostly from conversion of peat land and forests to other uses, meaning that changes to development planning are needed, amongst other measures. Land-based reductions will generate 80–90% of the total reductions and locally-appropriate mitigation actions in the land-use sector will help achieve this goal.
To achieve this, the Provincial Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions (RAD-GRKs) must link with development plans to meet both emissions-reduction and economic-growth targets. Spatial planning at the district level will need to include emission reductions along with economic growth without compromising watershed functions, biodiversity and ecological buffers.
To be robust and effective, these must be negotiated at local levels and harmonized with provincial and national plans. Furthermore, we must take into account existing biodiversity conservation commitments, environmental services such as watershed functions that are closely linked to adaptation strategies for climate change, and decentralization of governance systems.
To attempt to achieve this, ICRAF in collaboration with the Center for Climate Risk and Opportunity Management in Southeast Asia and Pacific at Bogor Agricultural University (CCROM), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), National Planning and Development Agency (Bappenas) and Regional Planning and Development Agency (Bappeda) has initiated a project called Locally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in Indonesia (LAMA-I). The project, which is funded by the Danish Agency for International Development, focuses on building the capacities of local governments in developing better land-use planning to achieve low-emissions development.
As an initial step, a methodological tool has been developed by ICRAF: Land-use Planning for Low-emissions Development Strategies (LUWES). It provides a framework and a capacity-building approach for establishing concepts for, and application of, emission reduction from the land-based sector. In addition, LUWES facilitates a multi-stakeholder negotiation process to formulate low-emissions development strategies in the land-based sector through creating scenarios and trade-off analyses. As part of LUWES, software called Abatement Cost Curve Generator for REDD (ABACUS) has been developed to estimate emission levels, predict future emissions, simulate reduction scenarios and analyse opportunity costs.
Having gone through a series of learning processes on LUWES implementation in a number of pilot districts, the method has been further refined by adding extra elements to cover adaptation to climate change, impacts on local climate, maintenance of watersheds, ecological buffers, and sustainable rural livelihoods. The revised version of LUWES has been named, Land-use Planning for Development with Multiple Environmental Services (LUMENS).
LUMENS is a land-use planning tool which is helping people in Papua and South Sumatra provinces develop proper zones or planning units within a landscape that suit land-use planning purposes in order to achieve sustainable landscapes, quantify the environmental services provided by the landscape, analyse trade-offs between rural income sources, and simulate scenarios of land-use change based on locally-specific drivers.
LUMENS includes refinement of ABACUS for trade-off analyses beyond only financial analyses of land-use systems and emissions reduction; links to downscaled climate-change predictions; and metrics that quantify ecological buffers linked to total tree cover, spatial configurations and climate change, related to availability of data in a district. Importantly, the framework forms a process for people to be involved in planning for the future of their landscape.
The Fair and Efficiant Value Chain Analysis (FERVA) method has also been revised so that people can be involved in a participatory process of developing an action plan to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions at the district and provincial levels (as part of the RAD-GRK).
Discussion with a local community in Mulima village, Jayawijaya. Photo: World Agroforestry Centre/Masayu Y Vinanda
LAMA-I awareness workshop in Musi Rawas district. Photo: World Agroforestry Centre/Masayu Y Vinanda
A group of local government representatives in Papua Province discussing a land-use planning map. Photo: World Agroforestry Centre/Asri Joni
Members of the Jayapura Working Group for Low-emission Development Initiative discussing a land-use planning strategy. Photo: World Agroforestry Centre/Masayu Y Vinanda
Strengthen the capacity of key local governments to develop integrated low-emissions development plans as part of Indonesia's nationally-appropriate mitigation actions.
In collaboration with various partners, particularly Bappenas and Bappeda, support Indonesia in synergizing locally-appropriate mitigation actions and creating a green economy.
By implementing LUMENS and undertaking a number of actions in selected districts, LAMA-I is expected to provide a significant contribution to both local and national government agencies to reach the targeted reductions in emissions and increases in economic growth while at the same time protecting watershed functions, biodiversity and ecological buffers.