The Indonesian Government has shown serious commitment and taken a leading role in fostering global climate-change mitigation. It is articulated through an ambitious target of reducing emissions by as much as 41% (26% from unilateral effort and 15% reduction generated from internationally supported actions). The land-based sector plays a crucial part in climate-change mitigation, contributing to nearly 90% of the reduction target. This has created a significant momentum nationally, and internationally, to push the climate-change mitigation debate into a concrete series of actions.
The unilateral effort to reduce emissions is led by the National Planning Development Agency (Bappenas). A policy has been established at the national level through the Presidential Decree 61/2011: National Action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction (RAN-GRK), which is a version of Indonesia's Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA), embracing all sectors that contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Meanwhile, the internationally supported actions for the land-based sector are led by the President’s Delivery Unit for Development Monitoring and Oversight (UKP4) and implemented through close coordination with the REDD+ Task Force. The program is supported through a bilateral agreement between the Indonesian and Norwegian governments.
However, during the process of designing action plans for reducing greenhouse gas emissions at the national and local levels, a number of challenges have been encountered: a lack of technical capacity, poor data availability, and weak institutional capacity at the local level are some of that need to be urgently addressed.
Participatory Monitoring by Civil Society of Land-use Planning for low-emissions development strategies (ParCiMon) is designed to focus on building both technical and organizational capacity amongst civil society groups in Papua province to develop land-use planning as well as build and implement a monitoring and evaluation system as part of achieving low-emissions development.
As an initial step, a method called Land-Use Planning for Low-emissions Development Strategies (LUWES), which was designed by the World Agroforestry Centre, has been introduced to a number of local stakeholders in the Working Groups for Low-Emissions Development Initiative established under ParCiMon. LUWES has been widely used as the main methodological tool for land-use planning. Through a participatory process which involves all stakeholders, the working groups have been trained to build systems for monitoring and evaluating land-use planning for low-emissions development. The district working groups are expected to provide significant contributions in designing an integrated strategy and action plans for reducing their district’s emissions. Concomitantly, their work is included in negotiations about policies at the national level through the National action Plan for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction.
As the province with the richest forest in Indonesia, Papua plays a pivotal role in climate mitigation. Papua has 25.8 million ha of forest area, equal to 83% of the province’s total area. A significant part of the natural forest cover is in pristine condition, which not only stores significant amounts of carbon and, therefore, contributes to climate regulation but also serves as habitat for extremely rich biodiversity, many of the flora and fauna of which are endemic owing to the diversity of the ecosystems, with rough terrain varying from lowland and montane rainforests, through freshwater swamp forests, mangroves, tropical savanna and grasslands to sub-alpine grasslands.
ParCiMon works in three districts, Jayapura in Northern Papua, Jayawijaya in Central Papua and Merauke in Southern Papua, which as a set covers varying biophysical conditions from central highlands to dry lowlands and wetlands, different governance systems, a wide range of dynamics and drivers of land-use and land-use changes, and mixed capacity for low-emissions development planning and implementation.
Climate-mitigation work in Papua is articulated in the Papua Action Plan to Reduce Green House Gas Emissions (Rencana Aksi Daerah Penurunan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca/RAD-GRK Papua), which falls under the coordination of the Regional Planning and Development Agency (Bappeda) and is implemented in synergy with Strategy and Action Plan for REDD (SRAP REDD) led by the Natural Resource Management Office (Bapesdalh).
Papua achieves its low-emissions development goal and contributes significantly to Indonesia's overall low-emissions development as an integral part of climate-change strategies.
- Tools, indicators, and monitoring and evaluation systems are developed for land-use planning for low-emissions development
- The capacity of civil society groups to participate and monitor the planning cycle of low-emissions development in the land-based sector is built
- The development of land-based action plans for greenhouse gas emissions reduction and negotiations at the district level are supported and reviewed: compilation and negotiation at the provincial level and links to the national level are facilitated
ParCiMon is translated into four work packages coordinated by each implementing institution.
Work package 1: Development of tools, indicators, monitoring and evaluation design
This work package focuses on development of tools to be operated by civil society groups and local governments. It is implemented by the World Agroforestry Centre.
- Development of community-based monitoring system for carbon and biodiversity
- Land-use planning to maintain environmental services (including carbon stock), which is inclusive, integrated and informed
- Building monitoring and evaluation system with civil society groups for land-use planning
- Building monitoring and evaluation system with civil society groups for investment initiatives and developments
- Building monitoring and evaluation system with civil society groups for sustainable landscape management
Work package 2: Building the capacity in planning, monitoring and evaluation of low-emission development from land-based sector
This package is a series of capacity-building activities with key local stakeholders—government institutions, universities, NGOs, private sector and indigenous community groups—in the planning, monitoring and evaluating of low-emissions development in the land-based sector. The package is implemented by the Papua Environmental Foundation (YALI), Papua Conservation and People Empowerment Foundation (YKPM) and Brawijaya University.
- Training civil society groups
- Facilitation of the working groups
- Advancing network for shared learning
- Conducting multi-stakeholder dialogues
- Establishing a multi-stakeholder negotiation forum
Work Package 3: Formulating strategies in developing, planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating
This work package focuses on coordinating various stakeholders and organizing a series of activities to support development of strategies on planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation at the district and provincial levels. It is implemented by the Papua Low-carbon Development Task Force (PLCDF).
Work Package 4: Coordination and Project Management
This package covers coordination and activity management with ParCiMon partners and other stakeholders at all levels, and with the donor institution. It is implemented by the World Agroforestry Centre.