Adoption of Sustainable Land Uses in Post-Soviet Central Asia: the case for Agroforestry
We examine constraints and opportunities to enhance adoption of agroforestry for ecosystem and livelihood improvement in post-Soviet economies, using Central Asian countries as examples. Using a coevolutionary socio-ecological systems framework, we describe how development efforts, especially agricultural policies, under centrally planned regimes and under transition to market economies have changed environmental conditions, and how they affect peoples’ welfare. We then discuss agroforestry as a sustainable land use practice to address these issues. We present regional-specific and -suitable agroforestry practices, and discuss their potential. We found that legacies from the previous period of central planning shape current land uses, institutions, infrastructure and decisions of farmers, and constrain development of agroforestry. By identifying opportunities and constraints of agroforestry, we provide recommendations for enhancing the use of agroforestry in Central Asia.