- What are the appropriate agroforestry-management options and their economic and ecological impacts on farming systems and household welfare?
- How can multi-strata agroforestry systems best be managed for diversity, productivity, profitability and stability?
- How are the costs and benefits of tree systems distributed among household members and social groups?
- How can the ecosystem services, social utility and economic profitability of trees best be incorporated into mixed agroforestry systems?
- What tools are required for identifying the right tree for the right place or smallholder populace? What tree integration models can optimize space and interactions among trees, crops and livestock?
- What is the impact of land-tenure policies and practices on the development and spread of mixed agroforestry systems?
- What are the impacts of external policies and institutional change on the adoptability, management and stability of agroforestry systems (e.g., technical recommendations, land and tree tenure, markets and policy)?