|Article Title||Feedback loops added to four conceptual models linking land change with driving forces and actors|
|Author||Meine van Noordwijk, Betha Lusiana, Grace B.Villamor, Herry Purnomo and Sonya Dewi|
|Journal Title||Ecology and Society|
|Institution||The Resilience Alliance|
|Four main types of feedback are:|
1. Land use, or the direct benefits that agents derive from their impact on land cover; it
usually involves direct learning and relatively short response cycles, although there is
ongoing debate about how much an economic lens misses of real motivations of the agents (Villamor et al. 2011).
2. Land use planning, or the attempts by stakeholders of land cover beyond the land
user, to change the rules that are part of the set of drivers influencing land users.
3. Agent-specific modification of incentive structures that are conditional on performance, as attempted in forms of Payments for Ecosystem Services and related institutions (Tomich et al. 2004, Van Noordwijk et al. 2004, Swallow et al. 2009, Van Noordwijk and Leimona 2010).
4. Generic changes in rules and economic incentives through policy change that is
expected to enhance ecosystem services and/ or economic performance at (sub)national scale, as currently discussed under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) umbrella where clarity on drivers and agents is needed (Blom et al. 2010).
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