Agroforestree database

This database provides detailed information on a total of 670 agroforestry tree species. It is intended to help field workers and researchers in selecting appropriate species for agroforestry systems and technologies.

For each species, the database includes information on identity, ecology and distribution, propagation and management, functional uses, pests and diseases and a bibliography.

This project has been funded by the British Department for International Development (DFID, the European Union and the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).

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Acacia aneuraFodder: In many parts of Australia the drought-resistant mulga forms a significant part of a sheep's diet at all times of the year but without supplementary high quality feed it supplies protein and energy barely sufficient for maintenance of dry-range sheep. Phyllodes have a high crude protein level (11-16%), low phosphorus content (0.05-0.1-2%) and good palatability. Excessive grazing may result in the death of mulga.
Acacia angustissimaFodder: A. angustissima produces large amounts of foliage with fodder potential. The crown architecture enables the tree to withstand frequent cuttings or defoliation with a high recovery and growth rate. A. angustissima has also been shown to respond well to coppicing. Biomass production has been shown to range from 10.3 t DM ha-1 to 11.4 t DM ha-1, at 2-m spacing. At 3-m spacing the biomass increases to a range from 11.5 t DM ha-1 to 12.4 t DM ha-1. These figures are based on cutting the trees back to 50 cm above ground level and on yearly cuttings taken during, and/or at the end of the wet season. Research shows that A. angustissima cuttings contain high levels of N, P and K, but due to a high tannin content (6% DM), the protein is less accessible to the livestock. Tests have shown that A. angustissima leaves degrade poorly in the rumen of cows (48% after 48 hours of incubation. A. angustissima has been found to produce significantly more leaves than other shrub legumes, notably Leucaena spp., Calliandra calothyrsus, Gliricidia sepium, Cajanus cajan, and Sesbania spp. However, the high tannin content and low palatability means it is of limited nutritional value to livestock. In feeding trials at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in Ethiopia, sheep fed 300 g of A. angustissima supplement per head per day died between 9 days and 21 days after consuming only 75-100 g per head per day at any time. This shows that the feed may contain toxins, and that the sheep did not particularly like it. In some areas of Indonesia A. angustissima leaf is reported to be eaten well and is regarded as an important source of forage.
Acacia aulacocarpaFodder: The potential for fodder production is limited; the phyllodes are rather unpalatable to stock, being eaten only during very dry periods, and the predicted in vivo digestibility is low, 33%.
Acacia auriculiformisFodder: Not widely used as fodder, but in India 1-year-old plantations are browsed by cattle.
Acacia catechuFodder: It is considered to be a good fodder tree and is extensively lopped to feed goats and at times cattle. For leaf fodder, finger-thick branches are lopped usually before main leaf fall occurs.
Acacia cincinnataFodder: Young trees resprout well following cutting and have potential for production of animal fodder, if palatability and nutrient levels are satisfactory.
Acacia elatiorFodder: Pods and young shoots are browsed by livestock.
Acacia eriolobaFodder: Leaves and pods are eaten by livestock and are a valuable source of fodder in the dry season. Pods are highly nutritious, their feeding value matching that of legume hay; a noticeable increase in the milk yield of cows that have eaten them has been reported.
Acacia ferrugineaFodder: Leaves are lopped for fodder.
Acacia glaucaFodder: It is used as forage in Timor and seeds are fed to chicken in Java. It has been used as a host plant for the lac insect in Java. Analysis of Indonesian leaves gave 27% crude protein.
Acacia holosericeaFodder: Large quantities of phyllode biomass, produced during the dry season when other acacias shed their leaves, is a valuable fodder source. However, fodder should be dried before it is fed to livestock, as fresh phyllodes are not palatable for cattle and sheep, and there are reports from Niger of goats dying after consuming them. Crude proteins and digestibility are low, due to their high concentrations of tannins, which limit the availability of the protein component. Trees 4 years old have reportedly produced about 3 t/ha of dry phyllodes.
Acacia karrooFodder: Foliage, flowers and green pods are important browse for livestock. Cattle do not browse it as much as do goats, when it is the only green forage in the woodland at the end of the dry season. Green foliage and pods contain 14-15% proteins (as percentage of dry matter).
Acacia koaFodder: Cattle, sheep and pigs browse A. koa foliage aggressively, especially its juvenile leaves.
Acacia laetaFodder: Leaves and pods of the tree are browsed by livestock.
Acacia leucophloeaA. leucophloea is an important dry-season fodder and pasture tree throughout its range. Leaves, tender shoots and pods are eagerly consumed by goats, sheep and cattle.

Leaves contain 15% crude protein and 19% crude fiber. However, due to hydrocyanic acid toxicity

A. leucophloea should not be used as a sole feed.
Acacia mangiumFodder: Young shoots and leaves are browsed by buffalo and cattle. Studies indicate they are high in crude protein content but with low in vitro dry matter digestibility.
Acacia mearnsiiFodder: The leaves have a high protein content (about 15%). Palatability trials with sheep showed milled leaves to be unpalatable on their own and were acceptable only when mixed with other feedstock. In Hawaii, A. mearnsii has been fed to cattle during drought periods.
Acacia melanoxylonFodder: The leaves can supply about 50-80% dry matter requirement of livestock.
Acacia melliferaFodder: Camels and goats browse the leaves, which are rich in protein, taking them from the shrubs or from the ground.
Acacia nilotica subsp niloticaFodder: The crude protein content of the leaves is 14-20%, and 11-16 % for the highly palatable pods. Pods and shoots are used as forage for camels, sheep and goats, especially in Sudan, where it is said to improve milk from these animals. In India, it constitutes a chief diet for goats and sheep, and seeds are a valuable cattle food.
Acacia pachycarpaFodder: In its natural habitat, A. pachycarpa is heavily grazed by animals and has potential as a good fodder species.
Acacia pennatulaFodder: Produces indehiscent seed pods commonly eaten by livestock. The pods have high protein (15%) and fiber content and are low in tannins. These attributes make them appropriate as fodder for fattening either as principal or as supplemental feed. In many areas ranchers simply release the livestock into the pastures (huizachales) during the season of ripe pod production.
Acacia salignaFodder: The phyllodes, young shoots, pods and seeds, whether fresh or dry, are rich in protein and are non-toxic and palatable to both sheep and goats. They are particularly valuable seasonally when other forage is scarce. The chemical composition of the leaves shows dry matter (50-55%), crude protein (12-16%), crude fibre (20-24%), crude fat (6-9%) and ash (10-12%). Re-growth of established bushes is so good that A. saligna can be completely grazed off without harming the plant.
Acacia senegalFodder: Leaves and pods are browsed by sheep, goats and camels. Crude protein values are 20% for leaves, 22% for green pods, and 20% for dry pods (expressed as a percentage of dry matter).
Acacia seyalFodder: The bark is extensively used for feeding cattle, sheep and goats during the dry season. When fresh, it is smooth and relatively soft. In February to March (the dry season in Kenya) thick branches are lopped and animals browse the bark and eat the leaves, which are relatively few at that time. The pods and leaves are nutritious and palatable to livestock. The feed value crude protein content is 11-15 % in leaves and 15-24 % in fruits. Digestible protein is 8-12 % in leaves and 13-15 % in fruits, which have a high digestibility. Leaves, pods and flowers are a major source of early dry-season fodder for sheep and goats over much of Africa. A. seyal is considered the best fodder plant in northern Nigeria and the Sahelian savannah. In the dry season in western Sudan, the Fulani drive their cattle to the districts where it grows. Branches (sometimes even the entire crown) are lopped in times of fodder scarcity.
Acacia sieberianaFodder: Pods, young shoots and leaves are highly nutritious and serve as forage for livestock in the dry season. In Sudan, pods are collected for fattening sheep but are said to taint milk.
Acacia tortilisFodder: It is an important source of fodder for cattle in India, West Africa, Somalia and Ethiopia. Foliage and fruits form important browse. The leaves are fed green as well as dry. A 10-year-old A. tortilis yields about 4-6 kg dry leaf and 10-12 kg pods per year. Fruits are preferred for stall-fed animals and should be ground to make them more nutritious. Crude protein and digestibility coefficients of A. tortilis are about 18% and 46.2%, respectively. Over 90% of the flowers abort and drop to the ground, providing additional important forage.
Acacia xanthophloeaFodder: Foliage and pods provide food for livestock; young branches and leaves are eaten by elephants and the leaves and pods by giraffe and vervet monkeys.
Acrocarpus fraxinifoliusFodder: The foliage can be used as fodder.
Adansonia digitataFodder: Young leaves, fruit, pods and seeds provide fodder for game and domestic animals. During drought, donkeys and game animals chew both the bark and fibrous wood for sap. Livestock and game often destroy young trees.
Adenanthera pavoninaFodder: As a supplemental source of fodder, the leaves are fairly high in digestible crude protein (17-22%) but low in mineral content.
Aegle marmelosFodder: The leaves and twigs are lopped for fodder.
Afzelia africanaFodder: The leaves, fruits and seeds are browsed by wildlife, particularly before the regrowth of grass in the early rainy season. Wild animals browse the arils, and antelopes eat the young shoots. Flying foxes and bats eat the flowers.
Afzelia quanzensisFodder: The bark and leaves are eaten by elephants, and the leaves are browsed by eland and grey duiker. Dropped flowers also are eaten by game.
Ailanthus excelsaFodder: Sheep do not readily browse the plants because of the offensive smell in young leaves. Mature leaves are lopped for their excellent sheep fodder.
Albizia amaraFodder: The leaves make excellent fodder.
Albizia anthelminticaFodder: Pods, leaves and shoots are browsed by animals.
Albizia chinensisFodder: The tree has shown potential as a fodder. Leaves are readily eaten by goats but the bark of branchlets is hardly consumed, possibly because of its high tannin content. Foliage contains 21-28 % crude protein. In tests carried out in Queensland, it yielded over 400 g leaf DM/tree over 5 growing seasons and productivity increased with successive years.
Albizia coriariaFodder: Foliage eaten by livestock.
Albizia ferrugineaFodder: Forage legume eaten by goats, reports from Nigeria lists it highest in a sample of 44 species in protein content and crude fibre.
Albizia julibrissinFodder: The leaves are used as fodder.
Albizia lebbeckFodder: A. lebbeck is grown in some areas primarily as fodder for camels, water buffalo and cattle. The leaves are reported to be good fodder, with 17-26% crude protein; 100 kg of leaves yield 11-12 kg of digestible protein, and 37 kg of digestible carbohydrates. The pods contain saponin and are not eaten in large amounts by sheep, although cattle eat them readily.
Albizia odoratissimaFodder: Leaves are an excellent cattle fodder and monkeys eat the pods of A. odoratissima.
Albizia proceraFodder: In South Asia, the Philippines and Australia, the protein-rich fodder of A. procera is eaten by cattle, buffaloes, goats, camels and elephants. Leaves contain 19.9% protein, 3.3% fat, 39.7% carbohydrates, 1.51% calcium, 0.3% phosphorus, 31.9% fibre and 6.2% ash (minerals). Using leaves for fodder is recommended only in mixtures with other species because of their high raw fibre and lignin content, which indicate poor digestibility and inadequate sodium and phosphorus content.
Albizia samanFodder: Pods, which fall to the ground when ripe, have a crude protein content of 12-18% (dry matter) with 41% digestibility for goats, and are popular with cattle, horses, goats and other animals. Some South American countries have begun exporting the pods. Although the leaves are nutritious, they are not considered an important fodder.
Albizia versicolorFodder: Leaves and shoots eaten by elephant and kudu whereas the seeds are eaten by the brown-headed parrots.
Albizia zygiaFodder: The shoots and leaf are eaten by livestock.
Allanblackia stuhlmanniiFodder: The bitter seedcake is used as an animal feed
Alnus acuminataFodder: The palatable, nitrogen-rich leaves make a useful source of emergency fodder.
Alnus nepalensisFodder: The foliage is of low to moderate value as fodder for sheep and goats; it is not suitable for cattle.
Alphitonia zizyphoidesFodder: The leaves and young shoots of Alphitonia species are consumed by cattle but have been found to have low digestibility and nutritional status.
Anacardium occidentaleFodder: The cake remaining after oil has been extracted from the kernel serves as animal food. Seed coats are used as poultry feed.
Andira inermisFodder: Preliminary studies at the University of El Salvador have shown that the foliage is edible and palatable for ruminants.
Annona senegalensisFodder: Livestock browse the leaves.
Anogeissus latifoliaFodder: Tussar silkworms are fed on its foliage which is also used as fodder for cattle and buffaloes. A. latifolia leaves contain up to 45% digestible nutrients. The leaves contain 7.45-11.5% crude protein. The average digestibility coefficients of crude protein, ether extract, crude fibre, and N-free extract are 8, 53, 32 and 64 respectively. Total digestible nutrients per 100 kg of dry material work out to 48%. A seasonal variability in chemical composition of the leaves has been reported.
Anthocephalus cadambaFodder: The fresh leaves are fed to cattle.
Argania spinosaFodder: It is a major source of forage for sheep, goats and cattle. When goats eat the fruit, the fleshy part is digested but the nut, because of its hard shell, is excreted. Later, the nuts are collected by farmers to produce oil. The sun-dried cake residue is also fed to livestock although this reduces the milk quality.
Artocarpus altilisFodder: Since only the pulp of mature breadfruit is consumed as human food, at least 25% of the fruit is wasted. The non-edible portions are high in carbohydrates, contain more protein than the pulp and are excellent sources of nutrients. Leaves are eaten by livestock and can be fed to cattle, goats, pigs and horses. They have even been reported to be good food for elephants. Horses will eat the bark, young branches and shoots and must therefore be kept away from new plantings. Excess ripe breadfruit, seeds, cores and other breadfruit waste are fed to pigs and other animals.
Artocarpus camansiFodder: All parts (flesh, peel, core, and seeds) of both mature and ripe fruits are edible and are fed to pigs and other livestock. Breadnut is also an important food source for flying foxes and arboreal mammals in its native range.
Artocarpus heterophyllusFodder: Leaves are cropped in India for fodder, and overripe, immature or fallen fruits are fed to hogs and cattle. Elephants eat the bark, leaves and fruits.
Artocarpus integerFodder: In Kerala and Bengal in India, the leaves are lopped for fodder. Ripe fruit is fed to cattle; elephants eat the bark, leaves and fruit.
Artocarpus lakoochaFodder: In Nepal it is highly valued as a fodder tree in the lower foothills of the Himalayas. The leaves contain about 16% crude protein and one tree produces between 60 and 200 kg fresh fodder in a year. It is fed to lactating animals and considered one of the most important milk producing forages.
Artocarpus mariannensisFodder: All parts of both mature and ripe fruits are edible and are fed to pigs and other livestock. The leaves also are edible. Breadfruit is an important food source for flying foxes, native doves, and other birds in the Pacific islands.
Asimina trilobaForage: Wildlife (e.g., gray fox, raccoons, squirrels, opossums and birds) eagerly seek out the fruits and often beat humans to the harvest.
Ateleia herbert-smithiiFodder: The leaves and seeds are not preferred by livestock though they occasionally eat them during the dry season. The foliage of A. herbert-smithii is eaten by very few species of insects and not browsed by vertebrates, it is relatively free of phenolics, but very rich in aromatic compounds.
Azadirachta indicaFodder: The leaves, though very bitter, are used as a dry season fodder. A. indica fruit is an important source of food for some wildlife, especially birds and bats, although they digest only the pulp, not the seed.
Azanza garckeanaFodder: Browsed by game and in the dry season by cattle.
Balanites aegyptiacaFodder: The fresh and dried leaves, fruit and sprouts are all eaten by livestock. As shown in an experiment in Burkina Faso, B. aegyptiaca contributed up to 38% of the dry-matter intake of goats in the dry season. Kernel meal, the residue remaining after oil extraction, is widely used in Senegal, Sudan and Uganda as a stock feed. The tree is lopped for fodder in India (Maharashta, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan).
Barringtonia proceraFodder: The kernel and mesocarp are a good feed for free-range chickens. Birds (cockatoos, parrots) and flying foxes feed on the fleshy mesocarp of fruits and on the flower nectar. The fallen kernels and mesocarps are food to some freshwater fish and prawns.
Bauhinia purpureaFodder: In an experiment in Nepal, B.purpurea was found increase milk production in lactating buffaloes. Leaves make good fodder and are greedily eaten by sheep, goats and cattle with protein content estimated at 12.6%.
Bauhinia rufescensFodder: The green and dried fruit and the leaves and shoots are valuable forage, favoured by many species of wild and domestic animals, which may cause the extinction of B. rufescens in regions overstocked with livestock. In Sudan, the pods are said to be the most valuable forage for camels. The nutritive value of the pods is characterized by crude protein 13.5% dry matter (DM), net energy 5.4 mJ/kg of DM, digestible protein/FU 0.19, and digestible DM (leaves) 51%.
Bauhinia tomentosaFodder: Not an important browsing tree for cattle as it contains prussic acid in the pods and the flowers; goats tend to nibble the leaves but do not consume much. Leaves are browsed by the black rhino, kudu and grey duiker; the flower buds and mature flowers are consumed by the grey lourie.
Bauhinia variegataFodder: Leaves make good fodder and are greedily eaten by sheep, goats and cattle. The average annual fodder yield per tree is 15-20 kg of dry matter.
Berchemia discolorFodder: The fruit and leaves can be used as fodder.
Bertholletia excelsaFodder: The oil in the nut is expressed and used as livestock feed.
Bixa orellanaFodder: Bixa meal, which remains after extraction of the pigment from the seed, is a useful additive to poultry feed and can replace 30% of the maize in the food. However, the seed embryo contains a poisonous alkaloid, so it is not wise to use the residues from the extraction process directly.
Bombax costatumFodder: Leaves are highly digestible and are eaten by livestock. B. costatum regenerates strongly after grazing.
Borassus aethiopumFodder: Fruits and young leaves are sometimes browsed for fodder.
Boscia angustifoliaFodder: The foliage is consumed by camels and small livestock, especially at the time of flowering and towards the end of the dry season.
Boscia senegalensisFodder: It is generally not valued for forage; but has potential if leaves could be debittered and prepared as a powder or granules and made appetizing to livestock. The leaves are little sought after by camels, at least in Niger and in the Sudan. Small livestock occasionally consume them during the bridging period.
Boswellia serrataFodder: It is not readily browsed by cattle, although in India, it is considered a substitute fodder for buffaloes.
Brachystegia spiciformisFodder: Leaves are browsed by livestock.
Bridelia micranthaFodder: In East and West Africa, B. micrantha is the host for the wild silkworm, Anaphe infracta, and has been cultivated for this purpose. The leaves are used for fodder. Animals eating the leaves are nyala, bushbuck and grey duiker. The only animal recorded as eating both leaves and bark is the black rhino.
Brosimum alicastrumFodder: B. alicastrum provides tender, agreeable forage for cattle; they consume it readily, appearing to enjoy the leaves and branch tips. It is eaten especially when grass is scarce during the dry season. Groves of large B. alicastrum trees are considered a source of livestock feed equal to that of the best pastures. The abundant fruit serves as pig feed.
Broussonetia papyriferaFodder: Animals browse seedlings and saplings of B. papyrifera. Leaves are lopped for fodder with 67.7% of dry matter was digestible, crude protein 84.8%, crude fibre 65.5%, crude fat 35.0% and ash 50.3%. The leaves are also used for feeding silkworms.
Bruguiera gymnorhizaFodder: The animals eat leaves
Bursera simarubaFodder: Branches are cut for cattle fodder.
Butea monospermaFodder: In India, young leaves are good fodder, eaten mainly by buffaloes. Though the leaves are fairly rich in nutrients, digestibility values are low, comparable only to those of straws.
Cadaba farinosaFodder: Flowers, leaves and fruits are relished by all livestock, except horses and donkeys, particularly during the dry season. Camels are particularly fond of them and are the main consumers, since other species find it difficult to reach the foliage. Buffalo, black rhino and hartebeasts also seek the foliage. The fodder has a high protein content, 30%, and a digestibility in vitro value of 78%. C. farinosa also has a high ash content.
Caesalpinia spinosaFodder: Seed germ (38 % C. spinosa seed weight) may be used as a source of protein in animal feeds once separated from the hull and endosperm.
Cajanus cajanFodder: C. cajan fodder alone may be a bit low in energy. The leaves can provide a good substitute for alfalfa in animal feed formulations, particularly in areas not suitable for alfalfa. The pods are used as cattle feed but are limited by their low protein and high fibre content. They have therefore been used as a roughage source for cattle. C. cajan grain has been successfully used for poultry feed. In Hawaii, a mixture of equal quantities of cracked pigeonpea and cracked maize has been proved the best poultry ration.
Calliandra calothyrsusFodder: Leaves and pods are rich in protein and do not contain any toxic substances. Protein content is 22% (dry matter) and annual fodder yield (dry matter) amounts to about 7-10 t/ha. The fodder can be given to all types of ruminants and fulfils 40-60% of their needs. Although no toxic substances have been found in the foliage, high concentrations of condensed tannins (up to 11%) have been reported, which may reduce the digestibility of protein for livestock to about 40%. Freshly cut (4-6 hours) forage has a higher digestibility value (60-80%). For fodder production, spacing can be dense: 0.5 x 0.5 m to 0.75 x 0.75 m. In Asia, it is planted in rice field dikes to produce fodder for fish.
Calophyllum brasilienseFodder: The fruits are good food for hogs.
Calotropis proceraFodder: Young pods, senescing leaves and flowers are eaten by goats, occasionally by sheep in times of need, and rarely by cattle and other livestock because they are slightly toxic. Nutritional analysis of shade-dried leaves of C. procera shows they contain 94% dry matter, 43% acid detergent fibre, 20% ash, 19% crude protein, 19% neutral detergent fibre, 5% magnesium, 2% oil, 0.59% phosphorus, 0.2% zinc, 0.04% iron and 0.02% calcium.
Capparis deciduaFodder: Its browse value is probably its most important asset, despite being low in nutritional value. In Sudan for instance, it is a major source of camel food as it can be eaten when little else is available.
Capparis tomentosaFodder: Leaves, although browsed by cattle, kudus and rhino, are believed to be poisonous.
Carissa congestaFodder: C. congesta leaves are fodder for the tussar silkworm.
Carissa edulisFodder: Goats and camels in the dry parts of Sudan browse on C. edulis.
Caryota urensFodder: In Sri Lanka, leaves of C. urens are traditionally used as a ‘delicacy fodder’ for domesticated elephants; in areas where the trees are not tapped, they are cut down to feed elephants. The leaves are used for fodder; they contain 2% crude protein and 9.3% crude fibre.
Cassia abbreviataFodder: Young branches are browsed by wildlife, the fruit pulp and seeds are popular with birds.
Cassia grandisFodder: Cattle relish the fruit pods of the tree.
Casuarina cunninghamianaFodder: Young trees are grazed by livestock and the foliage is useful as drought fodder, although it is not high in nutritive value. Analysis of the foliage from trial plantings in southeast Queensland, Australia, indicates a moderately low digestibility (29% in vivo) and relatively low levels of crude protein (10%). It is believed to be as good as or better than some commonly used fodder tree species such as Acacia saligna or Prosopis julifera.
Casuarina glaucaFodder: Cattle, goats and sheep will graze C. glauca seedlings, suckers and branchlets. The ground foliage has been used as an ingredient in chicken feed and also has value as a drought fodder.
Cedrela serrataFodder: The leaves and young shoots are lopped for cattle fodder.
Ceiba pentandraFodder: The pressed cake is a cattle feed containing about 26% protein. Sheep, goats and cattle relish the foliage.
Celtis australisFodder: Leaves and twigs are lopped for fodder in the dry season; quality is reported to be high, with 15% crude protein, good palatability and digestibility.
Ceratonia siliquaFodder: C. siliqua pods provide fodder for ruminants and non-ruminants. Endosperm and embryo of the seed can be ground and used for pet food. The fodder is now being used in zero-grazing in Mediterranean countries.
Chamaecytisus palmensisFodder: The foliage contains 17-22% crude protein. The leaves and fine stems of fresh regrowth may contain 25-29% crude protein (dry matter) and only 16-19% crude fiber. The foliage is free from toxic substances. Leaves have high in-vitro dry-matter digestibility (0.77-0.82).
Citrus bergamiaFodder: The pulp is used as animal feed or for the extraction of pectins.
Citrus maximaFodder: Pulp, molasses and residues from juice extraction are used as cattle feed.
Citrus sinensisFodder: Pulp, molasses and residues from juice production are used as cattle feed.
Cocos nuciferaFodder: Copra meal and coconut cake, the residues of oil extraction from copra containing approximately 20% protein, 45% carbohydrate, 11% fibre, fat, minerals and moisture, are used in cattle feed rations.
Coffea arabicaFodder: Pulp and parchment are occasionally fed to cattle in India.
Colophospermum mopaneFodder: C. mopane taps underground water, enabling it to break dormancy to produce fresh leaves and thus making it a valuable browse species in times of grass scarcity. Leaves are relished when reddish-brown and the crude protein content is about 11%; crude protein content in fallen leaves is about 4%. Old leaves are picked from the ground and eaten. Fresh leaves, which have a higher crude protein content (13%) and a laxative effect on cattle, are high in tannins and therefore less palatable.
Colubrina arborescensFodder: Animals browse the leaves and usually the damage is extensive under free-grazing conditions.
Combretum aculeatumFodder: The plant provides browse for livestock in Senegal, Sudan and northern Kenya.
Combretum molleFodder: The leaves are browsed by cattle.
Commiphora africanaFodder: The leaves are browsed by livestock, especially camels and goats, at the end of the dry season when the tree comes into leaf. C. africana is of outstanding importance for many nomadic herdsmen in the northern parts of the Sahel.
Commiphora edulisFodder: Foliage browsed by goats.
Commiphora wightiiFodder: It is frequently a component of grazing lands on the desert fringes where it contributes significantly to the fodder for camels and goats.
Cordeauxia edulisFodder: During the dry season, due to its evergreen nature, it is one of the few palatable fodder species available and provides abundant fodder. At that time, it is the mainstay of livestock, especially camels and goats. It, however, cannot withstand long-term heavy browsing pressure. Herdsmen say that it gives a taste to the meat of livestock that have browsed it. In the rainy season, it is avoided by camels, goats, sheep and cattle because the plants have hard leathery leaves that are high in tannins.
Cordia africanaFodder: Leaves provide fodder for the dry season.
Cordia dichotomaFodder: The leaves yield good fodder and are lopped for this purpose. They contain 12-15 % crude protein, 16-27 % crude fibre, 42-53 % nitrogen-free extract, 2-3 % ether extract, 13-17 % total ash, 2-4 % calcium and about 0.3 % phosphorus. The seed kernel of C. dichotoma contains a high proportion of fatty oils and proteins (46 and 31%, respectively) which has potential as cattle feed.
Cordia sinensisFodder: A very important source of fodder for goats, sheep, cattle and camels in dry areas.
Crossopteryx febrifugaFodder: Bushbuck browse the leaves and shoots.
Crotalaria goodiaeformisFodder: The leaves are important as cattle fodder in dry lowland areas (900m above sea level) of Kenya. Leaves have a high protein but low ash content.
Crotalaria junceaFodder: C. juncea is widely used as forage in Sri Lanka and southern Africa. The presence of compounds that cause unpalatability, which are poisonous under some conditions, is typical of the genus Crotalaria. Seeds may contain about 35-40% protein; stems are about 40% fibre. Leaves and stems are dried, as animals do not eat C. juncea when it is green. Sheep will not suffer any adverse effects if forced to eat dried forage, but they will suffer from toxicity if fed large quantities of seed. C. juncea should not be fed to horses, and intake of hay by cattle should be restricted to about 10% of their diet.
Crotalaria micansFodder: Young shoots and leaves are used as fodder for cattle; unlike many other Crotalaria spp., it is reported to be highly palatable and non-toxic. Young vegetative material contains 23% crude protein.
Crotalaria trichotomaFodder: Leaves and stems are very nutritious and are readily eaten by cattle and horses. They contain no alkaloids unlike many other species in the genus. It is grown for fodder often mixed with grasses.
Croton macrostachyusFodder: Leaves can be used as fodder.
Croton megalocarpusFodder: The seed is incorporated in poultry feeds, as its protein content is high (50%).
Croton sylvaticusFodder: The fruits are very popular with birds and can be promising as poultry feed.
Dacryodes edulisFodder: The kernel, which contains about 3.3% protein, is commonly fed to domestic livestock such as sheep and goats.
Dactyladenia barteriFodder: Leaves are used as fodder.
Dalbergia melanoxylonFodder: The pods and leaves can be used as animal fodder.
Dalbergia sissooFodder: Young branches and foliage form an excellent fodder with a dry-matter content of 32.46%, crude protein 2.7-24.1%. The foliage has normally been used as emergency feed when other fodder sources fail.
Delonix elataFodder: Tiger bean is a promising source of micronutrients for goats, sheep, camels and cattle which eat the foliage and young pods.
Derris robustaFodder: The leaves may serve as fodder.
Derris trifoliataFodder: The leaves are sometimes used as fodder.
Dichrostachys cinereaFodder: Cattle, camels and game (giraffe, buffalo, kudu, Lichtenstein’s hartebeest, nyala, impala, klipspringer, red duiker and Damara dik-dik) relish the juicy pods that drop to the ground and even eat the young twigs and leaves. Leaves are highly palatable, rich in protein (11-15% crude protein) and mineral content. Young shoots and pods are also browsed by smaller domestic animals. Pods and seeds do not contain hydrocyanic acid, minimizing the chance of poisoning animals.
Diospyros melanoxylonFodder: A tolerance to pruning makes D. melanoxylon a good fodder species. The leaves are reported to contain 7.12% crude protein, and 25.28% crude fibre.
Diospyros mespiliformisFodder: Leaves are eaten by elephant, giraffe, black rhino, eland and kudu, while fruits are eaten by kudu, klipspringer, warthog, baboons, vervet monkeys, yellow spotted rock dassies, pigeons, parrots, hornbills, louries and bulbuls; a definite asset to any farm.
Diospyros virginianaFodder: In Indiana and Ohio, the leaves and twigs of persimmon are an important supplementary fall and winter food for white-tailed deer. The fruit is an important food for squirrel, fox, coyote, raccoon, opossum, and quail, wild turkeys, bobwhite, crows, rabbits, hogs and cattle.
Dobera glabraFodder: Leaves are very palatable and browsed by all livestock.
Dodonaea angustifoliaFodder: The fruits ‘hops’ can be fed to cattle.
Dovyalis caffraFodder: Leaves are eaten by cattle, goats and game.
Ekebergia capensisFodder: Domestic stock and game (bushbuck, kudu, nyala) readily browse the fresh and fallen leaves, especially during times of drought. Baboons, vervet and samango monkeys, bushpig, bushbuck and nyala eat the fallen fruit beneath the tree. A useful tree to attract fruit eating birds.
Elaeis guineensisFodder: Pressed cake is used as cattle feed.
Emblica officinalisFodder: The foliage furnishes fodder for cattle.
Entada abyssinicaFodder: The leaves are suitable for fodder.
Entada africanaFodder: Leaves of E. africana make good fodder.
Entandrophragma utileFodder: Leaves browsed by animals.
Enterolobium cyclocarpumFodder: Large quantities of highly palatable and nutritious pods containing a sugary pulp are produced by the tree, and are consumed readily by livestock. The foliage is also palatable, though to a lesser extent than the pods.
Eriobotrya japonicaFodder: Tender branches are used as fodder in India and in East Africa.
Erythrina abyssinicaFodder: The foliage is considered a good protein supplement for ruminants (cattle, sheep and goats) and has been used as a fodder source for rabbits and pigs.
Erythrina berteroanaFodder: Young branches and immature leaves are eaten by cattle and rabbits.
Erythrina caffraFodder: E. caffra becomes increasingly important as a protein supplement (for example the palatable stems) during the dry periods when pasture grasses are scarce and of low nutritive value.
Erythrina edulisFodder: The leaves and tender branches can be fed to cattle, goats, horses, pigs, guinea pigs and rabbits. Leaves contain 24% protein, 29% crude fiber (dry weight) and 21% total carbohydrates. They are rich in potassium but low in calcium. Seeds and pods can be fed fresh to cattle and goats, but should be cooked before feeding to pigs, chickens, rabbits or fish. The pods contain 21% protein, 23% crude fiber (dry weight), 24% carbohydrates and 91% moisture. Cooked seed can replace up to 60% of the concentrate fed to chickens and fish.
Erythrina fuscaFodder: In Central America, E. fusca is used as a source of fodder.
Erythrina indicaFodder: Used as livestock fodder when lopped as it is rich in nitrogen (4% of dry weight)
Erythrina poeppigianaFodder: The green leaves of E. poeppigiana have a good nutritive value (20-22% of dry matter), are high in crude protein (27-34%), and have a good range of in-vitro digestibility (49-57%). However, due to their high cell wall content (55-58%), they should be supplemented with energy sources, such as tropical grasses, which are readily degradable in the rumen. The presence of potentially toxic alkaloids in the leaves of E. poeppigiana has not affected the health of cattle or goats, but feeding leaves to non-ruminants may be risky.
Erythrina variegataFodder: The leaves to a limited extend are used as fodder.
Eucalyptus maculataFodder: The flowers and/or flower buds of E. maculata contribute to the annual diet of P. peregrinus during winter.
Euclea divinorumFodder: The leaves are browsed by wild animals such as the rhino, giraffe and grey duiker.
Faidherbia albidaFodder: The leaves and pods are palatable to domestic animals and an important source of protein for livestock in the dry season.
Feronia limoniaFodder: The tree is lopped for fodder.
Ficus religiosaFodder: Its leaves are lopped as fodder for elephants, camels, goats and cattle; having about 10-14% crude protein. Silage prepared from the tree is palatable and digestible.
Ficus subcordataFodder: The foliage of F. subcordata is used as a feed supplement during the wet season and as the sole diet during the dry season for ruminants in some dryland farming areas. The young fruit can be fed to ruminants. The leaves contain 1.2-1.8% N, crude fibre 26-30%, N-free extract 42-47%, ash 8-11%, total digestible nutrient 33-35% and massic energy of DM is 10 000-19 000 kJ/kg.
Ficus sycomorusFodder: Leaves are a much-sought fodder with fairly high nutritive value (9% crude protein and 7 mJ/kg net energy dry matter); they are valuable fodder in overstocked semi-arid areas where the trees occur naturally. Fruits are eaten by livestock, wild animals and birds.
Ficus thonningiiFodder: Livestock eat the dry leaves on the ground and to a lesser degree fresh leaves. Leaves and twigs are eaten by bushbuck, dikdik, elephant, giraffe, impala, kudu and nyala. Dropped fruits are eaten by baboon, bushbuck, bushpig, civet, dikdik, grey duiker, rock and tree hyrax, impala, kudu, slender mongoose, samango and vervet monkeys, nyala, porcupine and warthog. The ripe fruits are eaten by bats, barbets, bulbuls, louries (turacos), parrots, pigeons and starlings.
Flacourtia indicaFodder: Browsed by game. Branches and leaves lopped for cattle in India.
Flemingia macrophyllaFodder: In some areas, such as Ghana, F. macrophylla remains green throughout the year and retains most of its leaf during the dry season, making it suitable as a dry-season browse species. Palatability of immature herbage is considerably better than that of old mature herbage.
Garcinia livingstoneiFodder: Leaves and young shoots are browsed by animals.
Genipa americanaFodder: Cattle readily eat the foliage. The fallen, astringent fruits are much eaten by wild and domestic animals
Gevuina avellanaFodder: The high protein content of cracking residue is used as stock feed.
Gleditsia triacanthosFodder: G. triacanthos leaves are an excellent source of fodder, contain 20% crude protein, low lignin and ensile well. Coppice regrowth retains high protein and low lignin levels. It has used as fodder in Australia and elsewhere. However, limited studies indicate very low biomass yield response when planted from seed and harvested with a forage harvester during the 1st year’s growth, or when 1-year-old seedlings were coppiced after a full year for establishment and growth. Sheep are able to digest the majority of seeds within the pods. However, for complete utilization by sheep, cattle, horses or swine, pods and seeds must be machine processed.
Gliricidia sepiumFodder: G. sepium leaves are rich in protein and highly digestible, and low in fibre and tannin. There is evidence of improved animal production (both milk and meat) in large and small ruminants when G. sepium is used as a supplement. Goats on G. sepium gained weight and maintained a positive N balance. However, non-ruminants fed on G. sepium have shown clear signs of poisoning. Perceptions of palatability vary greatly around the world. There are reports from India and Indonesia of limitations to its use because animals will not eat it. In some areas, such as Colombia and Sri Lanka, there is no palatability constraint and it is an important dry-season feed.
Gmelina arboreaFodder: Leaves are regarded as good fodder and cattle eat the fruit.
Grewia bicolorFodder: Livestock and game browse on the fresh or dried leaves and young stems. It is favoured more by sheep and goats than by horses, donkeys and cattle. Nutritional value of leaves is average to good but varies according to age. Fruit is also a suitable forage.
Grewia optivaFodder: The leaves are rated as good fodder and trees are heavily lopped for this purpose in the winter months when usually no other green fodder is available. The green leaves constitute about 70 % of the total green weight of branches. Leaf fodder yield is reported to be 11 ton/ha from 2-year-old plants, green fodder yield from mature trees is reported to be 12-30 kg. Leaves are fairly rich in protein and other nutrients and do not contain tannins. Crude protein is highest in young leaves and in winter leaves but decreases during the rainy season.
Grewia tenaxFodder: Young leaves are consumed by livestock, they are slightly palatable at the end of dry seasons, and have fairly good feed value.
Grewia villosaFodder: The leaves are very palatable to livestock, making it a good fodder in its native range.
Guazuma ulmifoliaFodder: In dry areas throughout its native range, G. ulmifolia is an important source of fodder for livestock, particularly at the end of the dry season when pasture grasses are not available. Immature fruit and leaves are fed to horses and cattle, and fruits are fed to hogs. Farmers feed the leaves and fruit to cattle, usually during the dry season. Crude protein content of young leaves ranges from 16 to 23% and of stems 7 to 8%. In vitro dry matter digestibility for young leaves ranges from 56 to 58% and of stems 31 to 36%. Basal leaves contain 2.4% tannins (dry matter).
Hardwickia binataFodder: Leaves contain about 9% crude protein, but the amount varies with the age of the leaves.
Hevea brasiliensisFodder: Seeds are sometimes eaten off the ground by cattle. Press cake or extracted meal can be cautiously used as feed for stock.
Hippophae rhamnoidesFodder: Herdsmen in northwest China often feed sea buckthorn leaves to their animals. In Russia, fodder supplements of sea buckthorn by-products are reported to improve liveweights and coat condition. Feeding poultry with meal made from sea buckthorn fruit and fruit oil has been observed to increase the pigmentation of egg yolks and body fat. The oil also increases flesh pigmentation in rainbow trout.
Hymenaea courbarilFodder: The pods and leaves are not eaten. The seeds and pulp are removed from the pod, ground and readily consumed by livestock.
Hymenocardia acidaFodder: Wildlife browse on the young shoots and leaves.
Hyphaene thebaicaFodder: Trees are browsed to a limited extent by livestock, especially in dry periods.
Indigofera arrectaFodder: Browsed toward the end of the dry season, when the young subsidiary shoots are readily eaten.
Inga edulisFodder: Pigs eat seeds when hungry, and cattle will even eat whole pods and leaves.
Irvingia gabonensisFodder: Seeds are used as cattle cake in Ghana.
Khaya senegalensisFodder: Young leaves contain fairly large amounts of digestible crude protein. The leaves are used as a fodder for cattle and camels, although they are not very palatable.
Kigelia pinnataFodder: When the flowers and leaves fall to the ground they are eaten by game and livestock.
Lawsonia inermisFodder: Leaves of L. inermis are browsed by livestock.
Leucaena collinsiiFodder: The leaves are readily consumed by stock and are highly digestible. Those of ssp. zacapana have highly nutritious leaves with low tannin content, high crude protein combined with low fibre.
Leucaena diversifoliaFodder: L. diversifolia has lower palatability and digestibility and higher condensed tannin levels than L. leucocephala, indicating lower fodder quality. However, digestibility and tannin levels are intermediate compared with other Leucaena species. The mimosine content is low (1.5-2.5%). Rations for ruminants should not contain more than 50% L. diversifolia, and the proportion for non-ruminants should not exceed 10%.
Leucaena esculentaFodder: In Mexico, trees are lopped for livestock fodder. Both leaves and unripe pods are consumed. However, low edible fraction, in vitro dry matter digestibility and high-condensed tannin levels limit its importance.
Leucaena leucocephalaFodder: L. leucocephala is one the highest quality and most palatable fodder trees of the tropics, often being described as the ‘alfalfa of the tropics’. The leaf quality compares favourably with alfalfa or lucerne in feed value except for its higher tannin content and mimosine toxicity to non-ruminants. Livestock feed should not contain more than 20% of L. leucocephala, as the mimosine can cause hair loss and stomach problems. Leaves have a high nutritive value (high palatability, digestibility, intake and crude-protein content), resulting in 70-100% increase in animal live weight gain compared with feeding on pure grass pasture. Herbage taken at peak quality has 55-70% digestibility and 20-25% crude protein. In addition, it is very persistent over several decades of cutting or grazing, is highly productive, recovers quickly from defoliation, combines well with companion grasses and can be grazed with minimal losses from trampling or grazing. Forage, packed in pellets and cubes, is internationally marketed as animal feed.
Leucaena pallidaFodder: L. pallida is replacing L. leucocephala in forage production. Its hybrid with the latter is especially valued for its exceptional forage yields, psyllid resistance and its spreading branchy habit is ideal for forage production. However, the nutritive value of the species and the hybrid are doubtful due to their lower edible fraction, higher condensed tannin content and lower digestibility than L. leucocephala. Psyllid resistance of hybrids like L. leucocephala x L. pallida, however, exceeds that of any L. leucocephala, permitting higher fodder yields under psyllid attack and the short heavily forked trees are preferred for herbivore browsing. Most accessions of the tetraploid species L. pallida are low forking and they confer this trait to some of their hybrids with L. leucocephala, some low shrubby dwarfs also result.
Leucaena salvadorensisFodder: Natural regeneration is browsed by cattle, and the tree may have fodder potential, but there is little detailed knowledge about its fodder quality.
Leucaena trichandraFodder: As for other traits, fodder quality varies greatly with seed source, for instance condensed tannin content varies from very low to very high across different seed sources.
Litsea monopetalaFodder: Leaves are the principal food of the muga silkworm (Antheraea assama) in India and are used for fodder in Nepal.
Madhuca latifoliaFodder: Leaves, flowers and fruits are lopped for goats and sheep. Seed cake is also fed to cattle.
Maesopsis eminiiFodder: The leaves are used as fodder. Digestibility of the leaves by livestock is excellent and only slightly reduced by heating. The leaves have a dry-matter content of 35%.
Mallotus philippensisFodder: The leaves are used as fodder, and in southern China M. philippensis is a host plant for lac insects.
Mangifera indicaFodder: Mango leaves are occasionally fed to cattle, but large quantities can cause death. Seed kernels are a byproduct of processing; they can be used as feed for cattle and poultry.
Manihot glazioviiFodder: In Senegal, young branches are fed to sheep and goats. Ceara leaves have a 25 % to 30 % dry matter protein content. However, cattle in Brazil suffer from hydrocyanic acid poisoning when they consume wilted leaves of the manicoba tree.
Melia azedarachFodder: Leaves are lopped for fodder and are highly nutritious.
Melia volkensiiFodder: Farmers believe leaf fodder is of high quality for both cattle and goats. The tree comes into leaf and is pruned for fodder towards the end of the dry season, a time when fodder is extremely scarce. Goats eat the large, fleshy drupes after they fall. The fruit pulp is reported to contain almost 10% crude fat and over 12% crude protein; the mature leaves are reported to contain over 5% crude fat and 21% crude protein.
Mesua ferreaFodder: Decorticated seed kernel meal can be incorporated up to the 10% level to replace maize in the feed of poultry without adverse effects on their performance. M. ferrea seed meal is a good source of protein and energy, and its use as a feed ingredient for cattle is proposed. Seed meal contains 12.8% digestible crude protein and 87.3% total digestible nitrogen on a DM basis.
Metroxylon saguFodder: Ground pith is sometimes used as an animal feed, especially for pigs, and when dried, for horses and chickens.
Michelia champacaFodder: Leaves are fed to silkworms.
Millettia duraFodder: The leaves can be fed to livestock.
Millettia thonningiiFodder: Both cattle and sheep consume leaves of M. thonningii.
Moringa oleiferaFodder: Leaves are mainly used for human food and not to any great extent for livestock, but branches are occasionally lopped for feeding camels and cattle.
Moringa stenopetalaFodder: The use of leaves and pods for animal fodder is currently of minor importance compared to their use for human consumption. Yet, due to their high protein content this is a promising potential use.
Morus albaFodder: Leaves are used as fodder for livestock; up to 6 kg of leaves a day can be fed to dairy cows to improve milk yield. Shade-dried leaves incorporated into feed enhance health and egg production in poultry.
Morus nigraFodder: Although inferior to those of M. alba, the leaves of M. nigra are also used for raising silkworms and have been used as a feed for domestic rabbits. Both cattle and goats browse the leaves and shoots; therefore, young saplings need protection.
Musanga cecropioidesFodder: The fruits are eaten by elephants and other animals.
Nauclea diderrichiiFodder: Eaten by elephants and other mammals.
Newtonia buchananiiFodder: The foliage and pods are eaten by livestock and can be gathered as fodder.
Olea capensisFodder: O. capensis is a useful fodder tree.
Olea europaea ssp. africanaFodder: The plants are much browsed on by livestock.
Olneya tesotaFodder: Wildlife and domestic livestock browse the foliage to some extent.
Opuntia ficus-indicaFodder: With decline in demand for the tender young pads at the end of the lent, they are alternatively used as dairy cattle fodder. Local dairymen maintain that cactus pads are essential for good lactation, imparts a better flavour and quality to the milk and enhances better quality for butter. The most extensive use of cactus occurs in Brazil where O. ficus-indica has been grown as a fodder for more than 80 years.
Orbignya phalerataFodder: Tender leaves around the bud are used as forage. The fruit mesocarp is a source of starch for animal feeds. The protein of nut contains 2.3 % of methionine and 4.3 % of lysin. After the oil is extracted, the cakes, which contain 1.1 % of phosphorus and 0.43 % of magnesium, are used as animal feeds.
Ougeinia dalbergioidesFodder: The leaves are highly valued as cattle feed. Farmers lop side branches, but often spare the main limbs to assure good growth and future supplies of fodder. In some areas, natural stands of this species are such important fodder resources that timber harvesting is forbidden. Leaves contain 12- 15% crude protein.
Paraserianthes falcatariaFodder: An activated tree metabolism at the beginning of the wet season synthesizes a complex polysaccharide that increases palatability for cattle of the bark. Leaves are used to feed chickens and goats.
Parinari curatellifoliaFodder: Game and cattle browse both leaves and fruits; the fruit is used as bait to trap animals such as antelopes.
Parkia biglobosaFodder: Whole pods are eaten by domestic stock, including cattle. The young seedlings are nutritious and heavily browsed by livestock. An important attribute of P. biglobosa trees is that most of their leaves remain green throughout the dry season and branches are lopped and used as fodder. Seeds are rich in calcium, sodium, potassium and phosphorus.
Parkinsonia aculeataFodder: Foliage and pods are browsed by livestock. Young branches are lopped to feed goats and sheep.
Paulownia tomentosaFodder: Leaves make good fodder for pigs, sheep and rabbits.
Peltophorum africanumFodder: Young leaves, and especially the pods, are relished by cattle and goats. A valuable tree to have in the veld on cattle and game farms, for the leaves and twigs are eaten by elephant, black rhino, giraffe, kudu, impala and grey duiker.
Peltophorum pterocarpumFodder: It is suitable for use as a fodder.
Persea americanaFodder: Surplus fruit is an important food source for pigs and other livestock.
Phoenix dactyliferaFodder: The seeds (stones) when ground and softened by soaking in water are used for feeding camels, goats and horses and have successfully been substituted as a poultry feed.
Phoenix reclinataFodder: Leaves are eaten by elephants, and the fruit is food for many wild animals.
Phytolacca dioicaFodder: Leaves are used as fodder in times of drought. However, fruits should be considered potentially toxic to livestock.
Piliostigma thonningiiFodder: The pods are nutritious and relished by cattle and antelopes. This is a preferred browse species of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the fruits are also taken in considerable quantities. However the feeding habits of the African elephant are destructive and do affect local plant populations.
Pistacia integerrimaFodder: Shoots and leaves used as medium quality fodder.
Pithecellobium dulceFodder: The pods and leaves gathered from hedge clippings are devoured by all livestock; horses, goats, camels, cattle and sheep. The presscake residue from seed oil extraction may be used as stock feed.
Pongamia pinnataFodder: Opinions vary on the usefulness of P. pinnata as a fodder; its value is greatest in arid regions. The leaves can be eaten by cattle and are readily consumed by goats however it is not common. The leaves contain 43% dry matter, 18% crude protein, 62% neutral detergent fibre, and in vitro dry matter digestibility of 50%. The presscake (seed residue) after oil extraction is bitter and unfit for use as a sole animal feed. It is high in protein but posses several toxic factors, particularly karanjin, pongamol and tannin. It is suggested as a short-term substitute for other protein sources but never serving as more than a 75% replacement.
Populus ciliataFodder: It is lopped for fodder and stored to be fed to livestock during the times of scarcity.
Populus deltoidesFodder: P. deltoides has been used extensively as a fodder species for sheep, goats and other livestock.
Populus euphraticaFodder: The leaves afford good fodder for sheep, goats and camels.
Prosopis africanaFodder: Young leaves and shoots are a fodder that is highly sought after towards the end of the dry season. Consequently, branches are frequently broken off or lopped. Cattle eat the pods.
Prosopis albaFodder: The pods contain 25% glucose and 10% proteins and are eaten by livestock. In P. alba’s native range, rural people collect the dry pods for their livestock and store them for drought periods.
Prosopis chilensisFodder: The pods and not the leaves are readily eaten by livestock. They have as high as 35% sugar content and contain 10-12% crude protein. Seeds are sometimes ground in a concentrate for animal feeds. Large trees, 40 cm in basal diameter and 7 m in canopy diameter, may produce 40 kg of pods under optimal condition.
Prosopis cinerariaFodder: The leafy portion, known locally in India as “loong’ is available for 4-5 months (June-October), during which it is used as dry fodder for animals and is sometimes mixed with animal feed.
Prosopis glandulosaFodder: Grinding improves the use of P. glandulosa pods for fodder. Sheep, goats and pigs are able to use a higher percentage of them in their diet than are cattle and horses. Cattle browse leaves of mature trees only on deteriorated rangeland.
Prosopis julifloraFodder: For dairy cows, the flour may make up 40-60% of concentrate rations. In South Africa, it is fed unmixed to sheep. Ripe pods contain 12-14% crude protein. The short-fibred parts are also suitable for pigs and poultry.
Prosopis tamarugoFodder: Tree produces abundant fodder, palatable to sheep, cattle and goats. It is said that older stands will support 26 sheep per hectare. Care must be taken that they do not destroy the lowest branches, which are important in the plant’s water economy, because they shade the dense lateral root zone near the soil surface.
Pseudosamanea guachapeleFodder: Browsed by animals during field trials in Malawi, has high potential as a fodder source.
Pterocarpus angolensisFodder: Elephant and kudu browse the leaves of P. angolensis.
Pterocarpus erinaceusFodder: Foliage and immature pods are sometimes cut down at the end of the dry season to feed cattle and sold in markets in the dry season for fattening sheep, goats, cattle and horses.
Pterocarpus lucensFodder: Good fodder for camels and goats with a feed value similar to P. erinaceus.
Pterocarpus rotundifoliusFodder: Foliage browsed by cattle and game.
Pterocarpus santalinoidesFodder: Livestock browse its young shoots and leaves.
Pueraria montanaFodder: Kudzu is excellent for fodder and silage, if mixed with grass. The green forage contains 14.5-20% crude protein, 2-3.5% fat, 27-36% crude fibre and 7-8.5% ash on dry weight basis.
Punica granatumFodder: The leaves are browsed by domesticated stock.
Quercus floribundaFodder: Young plants and coppice shoots are readily browsed, particularly by goats. Leaves contain 9.6% crude protein, with a digestibility coefficient of 44%. The total digestible nutrients are 43.2. The trees are extensively lopped for fodder.
Quercus semecarpifoliaFodder: The tree is lopped extensively in the hills of Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. Bears are particularly fond of acorns. The rotation lopping cycle is 3-4 year for maintenance of good health to lopped trees as they are capable of living to good old age and remain productive for very long periods.
Rauvolfia caffraFodder: Leaves browsed by nyala, and the leaves, flowers and fruit eaten by vervet monkeys.
Rauvolfia vomitoriaFodder: Not a preferred browse species, crude protein content 9.3% (Mecha et al. 1980).
Rhus natalensisFodder: The foliage is eaten by livestock.
Robinia pseudoacaciaFodder: The species is lopped heavily for fodder. Mature leaves average 20-25% crude protein, 12% fibre and 45-50% nitrogen-free extracts; variation in these values is high. Tannin levels are high in young leaves but decrease with maturity. Despite the presence of toxins in the leaves, the fodder is considered highly attractive to many animals.
Salix babylonicaFodder: The leaves and tender shoots are used as fodder for cows and goats in some areas. The fodder compares favourably with lucerne. In a survey carried out in Bumthang district, Bhutan, in 1982, Salix babylonica was found to be among the preferred fodder trees by farmers.
Salvadora oleoidesFodder: The tree is often lopped for camel fodder. Fruits fed to cattle are said to increase milk production. Seed cake is suitable as livestock fodder and contains 12 % protein. Sheep and goats graze the tree.
Salvadora persicaFodder: Leaves and young shoots are browsed by all stock, but normally cattle do not occur in the driest part of the S. persica distribution range and hence it tends to be valued more as a camel, sheep and goat forage. Leaves make good fodder as their water content is high (15-36%). The high salt content of the leaves is said to affect the taste of milk, but the leaves are said to increase lactation in cows.
Santalum albumFodder: Trees are sometimes lopped for fodder; the foliage of S. album is palatable to grazing animals such as rabbits, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs, horses and camels.
Santalum spicatumFodder: The shoots are eaten by livestock.
Sapindus mukorossiFodder: The leaves are used as fodder for cattle.
Sarcocephalus latifoliusFodder: Livestock eat shoot and leaves of the African peach.
Schima wallichiiFodder: In Nepal, the leaves are used for fodder.
Schinus terebinthifoliusFodder: Brazilian pepper tree produces good quality fodder, especially for goats, but it must be used carefully because of the toxicity of some of the plant parts. The fruits are eaten by birds including American robins, and mammals, both raccoons and possums.
Schinziophyton rautaneniiFodder: Fruit enjoyed by both cattle and game. Fruit pulp and the seed meal which is very rich in protein was fed to cattle up to 1962, however this feed is suspected to cause a discolouration of beef. Elephants feed on the bark.
Sclerocarya birrea ssp. caffraFodder: The fruits are eaten by cattle and goats and a wide variety of game animals, including elephants, which often behave drunkenly when the fruits ferment in their stomachs. Although the leaves are said to be slightly poisonous, in times of drought when there is no grazing, livestock owners will lop branches off the tree to use the leaves as fodder.
Senna atomariaFodder: The strong smelling leaves were browsed by animals during field trials in Malawi, S. atomaria has high potential as a fodder source, however some reports indicate stock poisoning, hair loss in mules and horses, after ingestion of the pods.
Senna siameaFodder: S. siamea is widely grown for fodder, but the trees can be browsed. The alkaloids and other secondary plant compounds in the leaves, flowers and pods are highly toxic to non-ruminants, such as pigs and poultry, and these animals should be kept away from S. siamea plantations.
Senna singueanaFodder: Leaves, pods and seeds are fed to livestock.
Sesbania bispinosaFodder: S. bispinosa is used as fodder for sheep, cattle and goats and can also be made into silage. Meat and milk production in cattle has reportedly increased when these animals have been fed with S. bispinosa. S. bispinosa gum could be a source of a sizable amount of a highly proteinous seed meal for cattle feed.
Sesbania grandifloraFodder: Leaves and pods are valued for fodder. The tree produces leaves for fodder within 4 months of establishment. The leaves contain 36% crude protein (dry weight) and 9600 IU vitamin A in every 100 g. For fodder production, the tree is cut when 90-120 cm tall (1.8 kg) and fed to animals in a rice straw diet. This regime showed growth increases comparable with those obtained by feeding formulated diets. The most effective method of feeding the fodder to ruminants is to supplement with it up to 15-30% of the total diet. Because of its high protein content, S. grandiflora should not be solely fed to animals but should be combined with a roughage that is low in protein and high in energy, such as rice or maize straw. Intake of low-quality feed materials can be increased by supplementing them with S. grandiflora fodder. The fodder can be fed fresh, wilted or dried. The dried fodder can be stored and saved for times of shortage; for example, in Indonesia it provides 70% of the diet of cattle and goats during the dry season. Forage production of 4.5-9.1 kg/ha per year could be expected. S. grandiflora leaves are toxic to chickens and should not be fed to them or other monogastric animals. The fruit is also used as forage.
Sesbania macranthaFodder: Dry-matter digestibility of sesbania leaves and soft stems is often high, exceeding 60%. The fodder has a high protein value and so should not be fed as a sole ration but combined with roughage that is low in protein and high in energy. Fodder can be fed fresh, wilted or dried. Dried fodder can be stored and rationed over time or saved for times of shortage.
Sesbania rostrataFodder: It is suitable as a fodder for both ruminants and non-ruminants. The above-ground parts of 50 days old S. rostrata grown in northern India contained per 100 g dry matter : N 2.9 g, P 0.3 g, K 1.6 g, S 0.4 g.
Sesbania sesbanFodder: The tree has a high percentage of foliage nitrogen and is an excellent supplement to protein-poor roughage in ruminant diets. Ruminants readily eat leaves and young branches. The crude protein content of the foliage is generally greater than 20% and often above 25%. In vitro dry-matter digestibility is 75%. Nylon-bag dry-matter digestibility of dried leaf of S. sesban is 90.7% and nitrogen digestibility is 96.7%. These characteristics, together with the generally low crude fibre content and high phosphorous levels, indicate the potential of the species as a high-quality forage source. When grazed, the brittle tree may break too easily and expose the tree to fungal attack. It has been successfully fed as a sole diet to goats and as a supplement to low-quality forage for sheep.
Shorea robustaFodder: In India, S. robusta is lopped for fodder, but the leaf fodder is considered to be of medium to poor quality. The oil cake, though rich in tannins (5-8%), has been used without detrimental effects in concentrates for cattle in proportions of up to 20%. As the protein remains completely undigested, the oil cake yields only energy. Salseed cake can also constitute up to 10% of poultry and pig rations without affecting the performance of these animals. The leaves can be used as roughage for cattle and are fed to Antheraea mylitta, a tasar silk-producing worm.
Simmondsia chinensisFodder: The residual meal from oil extraction contains 30–35% protein and is acceptable as a livestock food after detoxification. It is an important browse plant, the foliage and young twigs being relished by cattle, goats and deer.
Sophora japonicaFodder: The shoots, including the pods, seem to be suitable as fodder, but some plant parts, especially the pods and seeds, have been reported to be poisonous. . The leaf protein concentrate, used as fodder, is a product relatively poor in protein and carotenoid pigments, and very rich in lipids. Leaves contain 18.2% crude protein based on dry weight. The wet fractionation process was applied to twigs, leaves and pods. The leaf-protein concentrate obtained from the green juice after pressing contained 16% total lipids, which is very high; both values were determined on a dry matter basis. Seeds contain 9.9% fatty oil which is rich in linoleic acid (52.8%), but is poor in drying properties. The seedcake contains 30% protein, but glycosides should be removed before using it as fodder.
Spondias mombinFodder: Pigs eat the whole fruit as it falls to the ground. Leaves can be fed to cattle.
Spondias purpureaFodder: Shoot, leaf and seed are used as fattening feed for pigs and cattle.
Sterculia foetidaFodder: S. foetida leaves contain up to 2.66% calcium and are also a good source of protein and phosphorus, meeting nutritional requirements of ruminants. The kernel meal contains about 31% crude protein.
Stereospermum kunthianumFodder: Leaves are palatable and are browsed by horses.
Strychnos innocuaFodder: Leaves are eaten by livestock.
Strychnos spinosaFodder: Leaves of S. spinosa are browsed by livestock.
Styrax tonkinensisFodder: Young trees are browsed by cattle
Syzygium cordatumFodder: The leaves are browsed by game (kudu, nyala, bushbuck and grey duiker), and they eat the ripe fruit.
Syzygium cuminiiFodder: Leaves may be used as fodder.
Tamarindus indicaFodder: The foliage has a high forage value, though rarely lopped for this purpose because it affects fruit yields. In the southern states of India cooked seeds of Tamarind tree are fed to draught animals regularly.
Tamarix aphyllaFodder: Tender branches and leaves provide high value forage, particularly during the dry period. However, a high salt content necessitates additional watering of livestock.
Tarchonanthus camphoratusFodder: Shoot and leaves browsed by cattle. Milled mature branches, 1.25 cm in diameter, of T. camphoratus and Grewia flava show great promise as cattle fattening feed.
Taxus baccataFodder: In parts of western Himalayas, the trees are lopped for cattle fodder.
Tecomaria capensisFodder: Foliage readily browsed by stock and game.
Telfairia pedataFodder: After oil extraction the residue makes a valuable cake for livestock feeding.
Tephrosia candidaFodder: The leaves of T. candida are high in protein and can be used as fodder for pigs and cattle.
Tephrosia purpureaFodder: Information on the fodder value of T. purpurea is conflicting. In India and in South Africa, it is used as a fodder before flowering, but in Australia it is reported to cause livestock poisoning.
Terminalia alataFodder: The leaves are used as fodder in Nepal.
Terminalia arjunaFodder: It is widely planted for raising tassar silkworm and livestock fodder in India where leaves are heavily lopped. The leaves contain 9-11% crude protein and 14-20% crude fibre.
Terminalia belliricaFodder. The leaves are highly valued and extensively used as fodder. The farmers lopp side branches, often sparing the main limbs to ensure good growth and future supplies of fodder. The chemical composition improves with the stage of maturity in leaves, which are on the whole considered to be nutritious, palatable and digestible. Leaves contain 9- 14% crude proteins and can be used to rear tussar silkworms (Antherea mylitta).
Terminalia browniiFodder: Leaves are browsed by livestock.
Terminalia catappaFodder: The foliage is used as a feed for silkworms and other animal feeds.
Terminalia prunioidesFodder: Fruits are eaten by livestock.
Theobroma cacaoFodder: The cocoa-pod husk has a low alkaloid content, while tannin is practically absent. The crude fibre content is low; it is completely unlignified and compares favourably with Panicum maximum and Centrosema pubescens.
Thespesia populneaFodder: The leaves are a good source of protein, calcium and phosphorus for livestock.
Tithonia diversifoliaFodder: A suitable species for fodder for cows and goats. The leaves, soft branches and even the plant’s yellow flowers are eaten. T. diversifolia has a high nutritive-quality index.
Toona ciliataFodder: The leaves are sometimes lopped for fodder.
Treculia africanaFodder: The fruit-head pulp and bran, which contain 9.4% and 5.7% protein, respectively, can be used in livestock feed. In Malawi, blue monkeys are very fond of the fruit and extract the seed. Leaves are used for fodder in Tanzania.
Trema orientalisFodder: The leaves, pods and seeds are used for fodder. Silage made from the foliage has a crude protein content 18.9 g/100 g dry matter, and in the Philippines is fed to cattle, buffaloes and goats. The high fibre content and toxins usually limit the use of leaf meal in feeds. However, these limitations can be overcome by extracting protein from the leaves.
Trichilia emeticaFodder: Domestic animals feed on its leaves.
Uapaca kirkianaFodder: Fruits can contribute to animal feed. The flush of leaves at the end of the dry season is utilized by cattle as fodder in the absence of more palatable alternatives.
Vangueria infaustaFodder: The leaves of V. infausta are seldom browsed by cattle, but very much so by goats, and the leaves and young branches are eaten by elephant, giraffe, kudu and nyala. Red-footed squirrels, bushbabies, vervet monkeys and baboons eat the fruit on the tree, and bushpig eat it on the ground.
Vernonia amygdalinaFodder: Produces a large mass of forage from the leaves and shoots and therefore is a good fodder species.
Vitellaria paradoxaFodder: Shea-nut cake is increasingly used for livestock and poultry feed. Leaves and young sprouts serve as forage. Sheep and pigs eat the sugary pulp of ripe fruit that have fallen to the ground.
Vitex donianaFodder: The leaves, pods and seeds are a good fodder.
Vitex parvifloraFodder: Leaves are used as fodder.
Vitex payosFodder: Leaves are used as fodder.
Warburgia salutarisFodder: Leaves, pods and seeds all provide good fodder.
Warburgia ugandensisFodder: Leaves, pods and seeds are fed to livestock.
Wrightia tinctoriaFodder: The leaves are lopped for livestock fodder.
Zanthoxylum chalybeumFodder: The leaves and fruit are eaten by goats throughout the year. The branches are sometimes lopped for feed.
Ziziphus abyssinicaFodder: Jujube is browsed by livestock in spite of its thorns, and in Democratic Republic of Congo, it is cultivated as a fodder crop.
Ziziphus mauritianaFodder: In parts of India and North Africa, the leaves of Z. mauritiana are used as nutritious fodder for sheep and goats. Analysis of the chemicals constituents on a dry weight basis indicates the leaves contain 15.4% crude protein, 15.8% crude fibre, 6.7% total minerals, and 16.8% starch. In India, the leaves are also gathered to feed tasar silkworms; tasar silk, highly prized, is the only silk commercially exploited in the tropics.
Ziziphus mucronataFodder: A valuable fodder tree, especially in drier areas. Stock and game (giraffe, eland, kudu, sable, black wildebeest, nyala, impala, klipspringer, springbok, Sharpe’s greysbok, steenbok, Damara dik-dik and warthog) relish the highly nutritious leaves and fruit.
Zizyphus nummulariaFodder: The leaves of Z. nummularia provide excellent fodder for livestock. In India, the average total yield of forage was about 1000 kg ha-1. The leaves are collected dried and stored.
Zizyphus spina-christiFodder: The leaves provide valuable animal forage and fodder under open grazing conditions, but the nutritional value is apparently not high for most domestic livestock. The fruits are eaten by sheep and goats and the foliage by camels.