Agroforestree database

This database provides detailed information on a total of 670 agroforestry tree species. It is intended to help field workers and researchers in selecting appropriate species for agroforestry systems and technologies.

For each species, the database includes information on identity, ecology and distribution, propagation and management, functional uses, pests and diseases and a bibliography.

This project has been funded by the British Department for International Development (DFID, the European Union and the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).

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Acacia aneuraThe wood is excellent for firewood and charcoal.
Acacia aulacocarpaThe wood has an energy value of 21600 kJ/kg and is suitable for firewood. Charcoal made from A. aulacocarpa wood has a density of 500 kg/cubic metre at 12.5% moisture and an energy value of 37 100 kJ/kg.
Acacia auriculiformisA major source of firewood, its dense wood and high energy (calorific value of 4500-4900 kcal/kg) contribute to its popularity. It provides very good charcoal that glows well with little smoke and does not spark.
Acacia catechuThe wood is excellent firewood. The calorific value of sapwood is estimated at 5 142 kcal/kg, heartwood 5 244 kcal/kg. Dry wood on destruction gives 38.1% charcoal of very good quality.
Acacia cincinnataA dense wood that burns well when dry.
Acacia crassicarpaThe wood dries out moderately rapidly, burns well and is useful for firewood and charcoal, although it sparks at ignition and produces some fly ash and smoke during flaming. Its energy value is 22 600 kJ/kg.
Acacia elatiorA. elatior wood produces good firewood and charcoal.
Acacia eriolobaA. erioloba is a source of firewood for much of the Kalahari region in southern Africa.
Acacia etbaicaA. etbaica is a source of good firewood.
Acacia glaucaThe wood is suitable for fuel.
Acacia holosericeaThe wood, an excellent fuel that can readily be converted to charcoal, is hard with high density (ca. 870 kg/cubic meter). The calorific value of wood is estimated at 4670 kcal/kg and of charcoal 7536 kcal/kg. Early rapid growth makes A. holosericea a highly productive fuelwood source. Trees 4 years old can yield up to 13 t/ha.
Acacia karrooIt burns brightly, with very little smoke and no odour. It splits easily and once dried does not absorb moisture from the atmosphere. It has calcium oxalate crystals that give its embers high temperatures and make them long lasting. These clean burning traits, ideal for cooking and heating, make it excellent firewood wherever it grows. In the coastal dunes of Zululand, South Africa, it is reputed as an excellent charcoal source.
Acacia laetaA. laeta is a suitable source of firewood and charcoal.
Acacia lahaiThe tree is a significant source of firewood, and makes excellent charcoal.
Acacia leptocarpaThe dense wood is suitable for fuel.
Acacia leucophloeaIt is appreciated as firewood and is suitable for charcoal production.
Acacia mangiumWith a calorific value of 4 800-4 900 kcal/kg, A. mangium provides good quality charcoal and is suitable for the manufacture of charcoal briquettes and artificial carbon.
Acacia mearnsiiOriginally distributed as a source of tannin, black wattle is now recognized as a valuable fuel wood. Wood is moderately dense with specific gravity about 0.75, splits easily and burns well with a calorific value of 3500-4600 kcal/kg. The charcoal is extensively used in Brazil and Kenya, and in Indonesia the tree is extensively used as a domestic fuel and for curing tobacco.
Acacia melanoxylonA. melanoxylon is a good source of firewood and charcoal.
Acacia melliferaThe wood is used for fuel and charcoal.
Acacia nilotica subsp niloticaThe calorific value of the sapwood is 4500 kcal/kg, while that of the heartwood is 4950 kcal/kg. This valuable source of firewood and charcoal has been used in locomotives, river steamers and small industries. Burning charcoal, however, emits sparks. In India and Pakistan riverine plantations are managed on a 15-20 year rotation for fuel wood and timber.
Acacia pachycarpaThe tree has not been used for fuel but has the potential to produce small-sized firewood.
Acacia pennatulaCommonly used as a source of fuel and charcoal.
Acacia polyacantha ssp. polyacanthaThe wood of A. polyacantha ssp. polyacantha burns well, but the thorns make it difficult to handle.
Acacia salignaPlantations for firewood have been established in some Mediterranean countries. The wood is reported as sappy, light and not popular for firewood. A. saligna can withstand some shade and can be grown as an understorey beneath pines or eucalypts for energy in villages.
Acacia senegalAn excellent fuelwood-sometimes the only wood species to survive in dry areas. The calorific value is estimated at 3000 kcal/kg. Wood yields of 120-190 cubic metres per hectare, with annual increments of 0.5-1.0 cubic metres per hectare have been recorded. The dense wood also yields charcoal.
Acacia seyalA. seyal produces good, dense firewood that is used widely throughout its range. The smoke is pleasantly fragrant and the wood burns rather quickly. In Chad the tree is considered to provide the best fuelwood. In Sudan it is used to make a fragrant fire over which women perfume themselves. A. seyal var. seyal is an important source of rural energy as both firewood and charcoal. Trees managed on a 10-15 years rotation yield 10-35 cubic m/ha of fuelwood a year.
Acacia sieberianaA. sieberana is a good source of firewood and charcoal.
Acacia tortilisA. tortilis starts producing fuelwood at the age of 8-18 years, at the rate of 50 kg/tree. Its fast growth and good coppicing behaviour, coupled with the high calorific value for its wood (4400 kcal/kg), make it suitable for firewood and charcoal.
Acacia xanthophloeaA. xanthophloea is planted as a source of firewood, although it produces a gum that leaves a thick, black, tarlike deposit when burnt.
Acrocarpus fraxinifoliusThe wood is sometimes used for firewood in many places.
Adansonia digitataThe long-fibred wood is suitable for firewood. The shell and seeds are also used for fuel, which potters use to smooth earthenware necklaces before firing.
Adenanthera pavoninaEsteemed in the Pacific Islands for fuelwood, the wood burns readily, producing significant heat, and is used in both above- and below-ground ovens. Good-sized fuelwood, larger than 11 cm in diameter can be produced in 5 years. The wood yields very good charcoal.
Ailanthus altissimaThe wood is used for charcoal and firewood.
Ailanthus excelsaWood makes good firewood.
Albizia amaraThe branches are suited to both firewood and charcoal.
Albizia chinensisThe tree produces low quality firewood.
Albizia coriariaThe tree is used as firewood and for charcoal making.
Albizia ferrugineaBranches are used as firesticks.
Albizia gummiferaThe tree provides good fuelwood.
Albizia lebbeckAn excellent fuelwod species with a calorific value of 5200 kcal/g. A. amara fruits can yield 10 barrels of ethanol per hectare.
Albizia odoratissimaAlbizia odoratissima produces valuable fuelwood, dead and defective branches from shade trees are a major source of fuel.
Albizia proceraThe calorific value of dried sapwood is 4870 kcal/kg, and that of heartwood 4865 kcal/kg. Excellent charcoal (39.6%) can be prepared from the wood, and it is widely used as a fuel. Pods and fallen leaves should be considered not as undesirable litter but as potential energy sources. It seems probable that if A. lebbeck fruits can yield 10 barrels of ethanol/ha, this species could as well.
Albizia samanThe facts that A. saman wood produces 5200-5600 kcal/kg when it burns and that it regrows vigorous after lopping or pollarding make it a valuable source of high-quality firewood and charcoal. However, where there is a strong market for wood carvings, the wood is considered too valuable to be used as fuel.
Albizia versicolorIt produces firewood and quality charcoal.
Albizia zygiaProvides considerable amounts of charcoal in Ghana and fuelwood in other localities.
Aleurites moluccanaSeed oil is suitable, with modification, for use as a substitute for diesel, the residues for conversion to alcohol or pyrolysis. In Uganda, it is planted as a backyard tree for firewood.
Alnus acuminataReputed to be good for firewood; in a rotation of 20 years, the annual yield of wood for fuel is estimated at 10-15 cubic m/ha. The calorific value is estimated at 19 250 kJ/kg. Reports on specific gravity vary from 0.34-0.6. It has good even burning characteristics.
Alnus japonicaThe tree is an important source of firewood.
Alnus nepalensisWood has a low calorific value of 18230 kJ/kg. It dries easily, burns well and is an important source of firewood and charcoal.
Alnus rubraThe tree is used for firewood and has been considered for fuel to generate electricity. The wood has a calorific value of 4 600 kcal/kg and makes good charcoal.
Alphitonia zizyphoidesToi is one of the premier fuelwoods of the Pacific Islands; its habit of shedding dried, lateral branches provides a convenient source of high quality fuelwood. In some areas, such as on Santo in Vanuatu, the wood is collected, bundled and sold as fuelwood in local markets.
Alstonia booneiThis species provides firewood.
Alstonia scholarisA. scholaris has been recommended as a fuelwood species for the patana lands of Sri Lanka.
Altingia excelsaThe dried bark has been used as a tinder
Anacardium occidentaleThe wood is popular for firewood and charcoal. The residue of the shell is often used as fuel in cashew nut shell liquid extraction plants.
Andira inermisPrunings from shade trees in coffee plantations are used as firewood.
Annona squamosaThe tree is a good source of firewood.
Anogeissus latifoliaA. latifolia yields good charcoal and firewood with an energy value of 17 600-20 500 kJ/kg.
Antiaris toxicariaThe wood provides only marginal fuel.
Arbutus unedoThe wood makes good charcoal.
Arenga pinnataOld woody leaf bases as well as the long leaves, can be used for fuel. The hairs found on the base of the leaf sheaths are very good tinder for igniting fire.
Argania spinosaThe hard, heavy and durable wood gives good charcoal and firewood. The nut-shells are also burned for cooking.
Artocarpus altilisThe trees are an important source of firewood on the atolls of the Pacific.
Artocarpus camansiThe wood is fast burning, but generally only older, less productive trees are used for fuel.
Artocarpus integerA. integer is a good fuelwood; the calorific value of moisture-free heartwood is 5369 kcal/kg of wood.
Artocarpus lakoochaThe trees are an important source of firewood.
Artocarpus mariannensisThe wood is fast burning, but generally older, less productive trees are used for this purpose.
Aucomea klaineanaThe wood, which is used as firewood has an energy value of 29 970 kJ/kg
Averrhoa carambolaThe wood is a suitable candidate for firewood.
Azadirachta indicaCharcoal made from A. indica wood is of excellent quality and the wood has long been used as firewood. Its oil is burned in lamps throughout India.
Azanza garckeanaProvides valuable firewood.
Balanites aegyptiacaThe wood is good firewood; it produces considerable heat and very little smoke, making it particularly suitable for indoor use. It produces high-quality charcoal, and it has been suggested that the nutshell is suitable for industrial activated charcoal. The calorific value is estimated at 4600 kcal/kg.
Barringtonia proceraFallen branches and felled trees make good firewood.
Barringtonia racemosaProvides suitable firewood.
Bauhinia purpureaUsed as fuelwood; its calorific value is 4 800 kcal/kg.
Bauhinia rufescensThe wood makes acceptable firewood and good charcoal.
Bauhinia variegataOne of the main uses of B. variegata is as fuel; calorific value is 4 800 kcal/kg.
Bertholletia excelsaDried fruit capsules are useful as fuel; the nut, which has an elevated oil content of 63-69%, burns with a candlelike flame when lit.
Bischofia javanicaAlthough the wood is not suitable as a fuelwood, it is used for charcoal production.
Bixa orellanaIt is said that fire can be started by the friction of 2 pieces of the soft wood.
Blighia sapidaGood quality charcoal is produced from B. sapida wood.
Borassus aethiopumFirewood and charcoal can be obtained from B. aethiopum.
Boscia angustifoliaThe tree was formerly converted into charcoal for gunpowder.
Boscia senegalensisAs firewood, it burns making much smoke.
Boswellia serrataThe wood is a good fuel. Charcoal made from it is particularly favoured for iron smelting.
Brachylaena huillensisDuring the 1st 2 decades of the 19th century, B. huillensis was the main fuel for Kenya. It was also exported as short logs to India as an inferior substitute for sandalwood for use in cremations. It is suitable for charcoal because of its high density, and is exploited for this in Kenya.
Brachystegia spiciformisTrees are a good source of firewood and charcoal.
Bridelia micranthaThe wood makes excellent firewood and charcoal.
Bruguiera gymnorhizaThe wood widely favoured as firewood and for conversion into charcoal as it produces the most heat among mangroves. For charcoal, the tree has a higher calorific value than Rhizophora
Bucida bucerasIt is a good fuelwood and makes excellent charcoal.
Bursera simarubaWhen thoroughly dry, the wood is used as firewood or charcoal.
Butea monospermaWood makes a fuel of moderate quality. Leaves are sometimes used as a fuel. The wood is burnt for gunpowder charcoal.
Byrsonima crassifoliaIn Brazil, the wood is chosen for the hot fire over which people smoke the stimulant paste of guaraná (Paullinia cupana) because the burning wood has a pleasant odour. In some areas it is used for making charcoal.
Cadaba farinosaProvides fuelwood.
Caesalpinia sappanThe wood is used for firewood and its energy value is about 25 000 kJ/kg.
Caesalpinia velutinaThe tree produces high quality firewood and charcoal. It splits easily and burns slowly with little smoke, dries quickly and stores well. It can also be burnt green in mixture with dry wood.
Cajanus cajanC. cajan sticks are an important household fuel in many areas. The heat value is about 1/2 that of the same weight of coal, and it has several advantages over traditional trees, such as its rapid growth potential, possibility of producing other crops on the same land, and production of a seed crop. Farmers sow it instead of grain because of its wood. Its productivity levels more than make up for the comparatively poor fuel characteristics.
Calliandra calothyrsusA good firewood species because it is fast growing, multi-stemmed, easy to regenerate and thornless. One year after planting, annual wood yields have been reported in the order of 15-40 t/ha with annual coppice harvests continuing for 10-20 years. Yields from C. calothyrsus are extremely good in coppice; after being cut at 50 cm from the ground, 3 m high coppices are formed in only 6 months rotation. The rootstock is very vigorous and will sprout readily. For firewood, optimum spacing is 1 x 2 m with a minimum of 1 x 1 m. Returns from charcoal production are higher than fuelwood because the wood is a quick burner. C. calothyrsus can produce 14 t/ha of charcoal annually. Wood is suitable as a smoking fuel for the production of smoked sheet rubber. There has been a demand for smoking fuel since old rubber trees, the traditional source, are increasingly used by furniture manufacturers.
Calodendrum capenseC. capense is suitable for firewood and charcoal.
Calotropis proceraStems produce a good charcoal, while the stem pith makes good tinder. Produces an effective and sustained smoky fire, suitable for drying fish. Charcoal has been used for gunpowder in India.
Cananga odorataThe wood is occasionally used for fuelwood
Canarium indicumThe resin-rich wood is soft and makes an excellent firewood. The hard, stony shell of the seed is chiefly used in cooking, for which it makes an excellent fuel.
Canarium ovatumThe hard and thick shell that encloses the kernel makes an excellent fuel for cooking. The resin-rich wood makes good firewood.
Canarium schweinfurthiiThe elemi makes a good fuelwood, igniting readily and burning with a lot of heat. The resin burns readily and is used as a bush candle.
Capparis deciduaIt is used for charcoal and firewood in its native range.
Capparis tomentosaC. tomentosa is suitable for firewood.
Carissa congestaIt is used as fuelwood.
Carissa edulisThe species is a source of excellent firewood.
Cassia abbreviataTree a useful source of charcoal and firewood.
Cassia fistulaThe plant has been considered as a fuelwood in Mexico.
Cassia grandisThe tree is considered good for charcoal and fuelwood.
Cassipourea malosanaTree parts used as fuelwood.
Castanospermum australeBlack bean wood can be used as fuel.
Casuarina cunninghamianaAn excellent firewood species that burns well and retains ashes for a long time; it is suitable for firing baker’s ovens. In Egypt, gives a charcoal yield of 33.6% and an ash content of 1.9% with an estimated fuel value of 4870 kcal/kg.
Casuarina equisetifoliaThe highly regarded wood ignites readily even when green, and ashes retain heat for long periods. It has been called ‘the best firewood in the world’ and also produces high-quality charcoal. Calorific value of the wood is 5000 kcal/kg and that of the charcoal exceeds 7 000 kcal/kg. It has been used for both domestic and industrial fuel such as for railroad locomotives. In Asia, leaf litter from plantations is often removed to be used as fuel.
Casuarina glaucaThe wood has a calorific value of 4 700 kcal/kg, splits easily, and burns slowly with little smoke or ash. Can also be burned when green, an important advantage in fuel-short areas. Produces excellent charcoal. After 4 years, trees begin to shed about 4 t of cones/year. These, too, make good pellet-sized fuel. The wood is used as firewood in rural areas of Egypt.
Casuarina junghuhnianaThe wood is highly suitable for firewood and charcoal production. The air-dry density of the wood is 900-1000 kg/cubic m, and the density of charcoal is 650 kg/cubic m. The energy from the charcoal is 34 500 kJ/kg, which is among the highest among firewood species.
Casuarina oligodonThe wood is regarded as one of the best firewoods in the world, with a calorific value of the charcoal of over 700 k cal/kg.
Cedrela odorataA good firewood species.
Cedrus deodaraIt provides an excellent fuelwood
Ceratonia siliquaThe wood produces a slow-burning charcoal and can also be used for firewood.
Chamaecytisus palmensisWhen allowed to grow, thick branches provide fuelwood that burns with intense heat.
Chukrasia tabularisThe wood can also be used as a fuel.
Citrus maximaIt is a potential source of firewood
Citrus sinensisC. sinensis is a potential source of firewood.
Cocos nuciferaThe high moisture content of C. nucifera wood and the difficulty of splitting it has made it relatively unpopular as firewood. Coconut shell charcoal is a major source of domestic fuel in the Philippines. It is also exported to Japan and the USA. Coconut oil can be used as a substitute for diesel oils, for electric generating plants and motor vehicles. However, this use is non-economic in most situations at the present prices of fuel oil.
Cola nitidaA good source of fuelwood.
Colophospermum mopaneWood is excellent firewood, burning with great heat and very little ash; it burns easily, even when green. However, the hardness makes it difficult to fell, chop or split.
Colubrina arborescensThe pruned branches provide excellent firewood
Combretum collinumC. collinum is a source of firewood and makes very good charcoal.
Combretum molleWood burns slowly, giving intense heat, and is suitable for firewood and production of high quality charcoal.
Commiphora edulisC. edulis is a good source of firewood.
Copaifera langsdorfiiThe balsamiferous wood, with density of 700-900 kg/cu m, burns readily, perhaps even when green. The hydrocarbon obtained from the trunk can be used directly by a diesel-powered car.
Cordeauxia edulisVillagers and nomads use the hard wood for firewood. It burns well, even when still wet.
Cordia africanaTrees are a good source of firewood.
Cordia dichotomaThe tree is used as a fuelwood.
Coula edulisWood produces suitable charcoal.
Crossopteryx febrifugaThe wood is used for fuel.
Crotalaria goodiaeformisTwigs can be used as firesticks.
Croton macrostachyusMainly used for firewood and the production of charcoal, but it burns with a rather unpleasant spicy odour.
Croton megalocarpusWell-dried nuts are reportedly used in some areas together with charcoal in cooking stoves. The tree is also utilized for firewood.
Croton sylvaticusThe wood is excellent fuel, burning even when green.
Cunninghamia lanceolataThe species produces quality firewood.
Cupressus lusitanicaC. lusitanica is a good source of firewood.
Cupressus torulosaThe tree is used as fuelwood.
Dalbergia melanoxylonThe calorific value of the wood is more than 49 000 kcal/kg. Heat generation is so high that fires of D. melanoxylon have been reported to melt cooking utensils.
Dalbergia sissooThe species is fast growing, hence suitable for firewood. Sapwood and heartwood have calorific values of 4.9 and 5.2 kcal/g respectively.
Delonix elataD. elata is very promising as a firewood source having high density, calorific value and carbon percentage, and low silica and nitrogen.
Delonix regiaThe large pods as well as the wood are used for fuel.
Derris microphyllaThe tree is a source of firewood.
Dialium guineenseThe tree is said to make good firewood and charcoal.
Dichrostachys cinereaThe wood is dense, burns slowly with few sparks and emits a non-toxic smoke, making it excellent firewood. It often grows many small trunks, ideal in size for carrying in a headload.
Dimocarpus longanThe seeds and the rind are burnt for fuel. The wood is not highly valued for fuel.
Diospyros melanoxylonD. melanoxylon is reported to be good fuelwood; calorific value of sapwood is 4957 kcal/kg and of heartwood, 5030 kcal/kg.
Diospyros mespiliformisD. mespiliformis makes good fuelwood and charcoal.
Dipterocarpus grandiflorusThe wood makes good quality charcoal.
Dobera glabraD. glabra is planted for firewood.
Dodonaea angustifoliaSand olive provides good quality charcoal and firewood.
Dracontomelon daoThe tree is used for firewood.
Ekebergia capensisFirewood and charcoal can be obtained from the trees.
Elaeis guineensisIt is technically possible to produce from palm oil either carbohydrates for conversion to alcohol or a methanolizable oil as a diesel substitute. In Togo, the pressed fruits are dried and fashioned into cakes for cooking fuel.
Emblica officinalisFuelwood: The wood serves also as fuel and a source of charcoal.
Entada abyssinicaE. abyssinica is often used as firewood.
Entandrophragma utileE. utile is an excellent source of fuel wood and charcoal.
Eriobotrya japonicaThe wood of E. japonica has market value as firewood.
Erythrina abyssinicaE. abyssinica trees may be cut for firewood.
Erythrina berteroanaThe tree is used as fuel in Puerto Rico.
Erythrina caffraThe tree is a good source of firewood.
Erythrina edulisThe tree is used as firewood.
Erythrina fuscaFarmers occasionally use the dry branches of E. fusca as fuelwood despite claims that the branches do not burn well and produce a lot of ash. It is used more because it is available rather than because it is preferred.
Erythrina poeppigianaAlthough the wood is light, with low calorific value, it is sometimes used as a firewood.
Eucalyptus camaldulensisThe firewood is suitable for industrial use in brick kilns but is not preferred for domestic use because it is too smoky and burns too fast. However, it makes good-quality charcoal.
Eucalyptus degluptaE. deglupta is used to a limited extent for firewood and charcoal. However, it is normally considered too valuable for firewood. Trees more than 15 years old yield good charcoal. The energy value of the wood is 18 500-21 100 kJ/kg.
Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulusE. globulus ssp. globulus provides good firewood with an oven-dry calorific value of about 19 900 kJ/kg. It burns freely, leaves little ash and carbonizes easily for good charcoal.
Eucalyptus grandisLarge quantities of the wood are used for charcoal, for iron smelting, for example in Brazil. The firewood is used for domestic purposes and for curing tobacco, especially in Uganda.
Eucalyptus maculataThe tree is an important fuelwood.
Eucalyptus nitensA suitable fuelwood, and is popular for this in New Zealand.
Eucalyptus pellitaE. pellita is a suitable source of firewood and charcoal.
Eucalyptus robustaE. robusta is widely used as firewood and for charcoal.
Eucalyptus tereticornisE. tereticornis is popular and widely used for firewood and charcoal.
Eucalyptus urophyllaE. urophylla makes satisfactory fuelwood and charcoal.
Euclea divinorumBranches used as firewood in some East African localities.
Euphorbia tirucalliYields charcoal suitable for use in gunpowder. Its use as a source of hydrocarbon has been investigated by a number of authors, the latex hydrocarbon is largely a C30 triterpenoid which on cracking yields high octane gasoline. It is estimated that 1-2 t of crude oil can be obtained per ha per year from E. tirucalli. The gross energy value of E. tirucalli biomass is 17 600 kJ/kg. The biomass can be converted into gas, liquid fuels and solid fuels such as pellets, briquettes and charcoal.
Fagraea racemosaIt is used as firewood.
Faidherbia albidaThe plant stems are used as fuelwood. The calorific value is estimated at 19.741 kJ/kg of dry wood. Charcoal yields are as low as 17%.
Faurea salignaWood makes good firewood and charcoal.
Feronia limoniaThe wood serves as fuel.
Ficus glumosaF. glumosa is a source of firewood and is used to produce charcoal.
Ficus religiosaIt is used as firewood.
Ficus subcordataThe wood is used as fuel for brick and limestone kilns, and the smaller branches are used for household firewood.
Ficus sycomorusCan be used as firewood and for making charcoal; various peoples throughout Africa use a piece of dry wood from this tree as the base block when starting a fire by the friction method.
Ficus thonningiiBranches are used for firewood.
Flacourtia indicaWood used for firewood and charcoal.
Flemingia macrophyllaFuelwood is a valuable byproduct. A 2-year-old stand with a spacing of 0.5 x 4 m can produce about 6.8 t of dry woody stems/ha.
Fraxinus excelsiorHigh quality firewood is obtained from the ash.
Funtumia africanaBranches and trunk can be used as fuelwood.
Garcinia livingstoneiThe tree is used as fuelwood.
Genipa americanaSaplings good for firewood
Gleditsia triacanthosThe specific gravity of the wood is 0.60 green, 0.67 oven-dry, and it is considered an excellent source of fuelwood.
Gliricidia sepiumOften used for firewood and charcoal production. The wood burns slowly without sparking and with little smoke, so it is an important fuelwood in the subhumid tropics. The calorific value of a 5-year-old tree is 4550 kcal/kg.
Gmelina arboreaG. arborea is planted mostly for firewood, which has a calorific value of 4800 kcal/kg. For firewood, a spacing of 2 x 2 m is recommended. Plantations of G. arborea have been established for tobacco curing.
Grevillea robustaG. robusta is popular for firewood and charcoal. It is also used to fuel locomotives and river steamers, power boilers and small industries. The calorific value of sapwood is about 4800 kcal/kg, while that of heartwood is 4950 kcal/kg.
Grewia bicolorSought as a firewood only in certain areas, for example Senegal and Tanzania, but less valued elsewhere.
Grewia optivaThe wood has an unpleasant odour and is, therefore seldom used as fuel if an alternative is available.
Grewia tenaxThe branches are used as firewood, and can be used in charcoal making.
Guazuma ulmifoliaG. ulmifolia can be used for firewood and charcoal.
Haematoxylum campechianumThe wood burns readily.
Hagenia abyssinicaH. abyssinica is a good source of firewood and charcoal.
Hardwickia binataH. binata provides excellent firewood and good charcoal.
Harungana madagascariensisH. madagascariensis is a source of firewood and is used in the production of charcoal.
Hevea brasiliensisRubberwood was formerly regarded as a byproduct of the rubber plantations and used for the production of charcoal or as fuelwood, for brick making, tobacco drying and rubber drying.
Hibiscus sabdariffaH. sabdariffa stem and wood are potential raw materials for charcoal making.
Hippophae rhamnoidesThe tree yields good quality fuelwood.
Hymenocardia acidaThe tree is used as firewood and for charcoal making.
Hyphaene thebaicaPalms are occasionally used for firewood and charcoal; leaves may also be used as fuel.
Ilex mitisFuelwood: Ilex mitis is also used as fuelwood.
Inga edulisThe ease with which the seed germinates, its quick growth, rusticity and high coppicing ability make this species useful for the smallholder’s woodlot and it is also a useful bush-fallow species. The branches are a popular source of firewood, with a high calorific value and little smoke, although the tree is not cultivated specifically for fuel.
Inga veraThe moderately heavy wood makes excellent fuel and is used for charcoal throughout the West Indies.
Intsia bijugaThe small branches of felled trees are used as firewood.
Jacaranda mimosifoliaJ. mimosifolia provides useful firewood.
Jatropha curcasJatropha oil is an environmentally safe, cost-effective renewable source of non-conventional energy and a promising substitute for diesel, kerosene and other fuels. Physic nut oil was used in engines in Segou, Mali, during World War II. The oil burns without smoke and has been employed for street lighting near Rio de Janeiro. Fruit hulls and seed shells can be used as a fuel. Dried seeds dipped into palm oil are used as torches, which will keep alight even in a strong wind. The wood was used as fuel, though of poor quality, in Cape Verde.
Juniperus proceraWood burns quite well hence a useful species for firewood.
Khaya nyasicaSuitable for firewood.
Khaya senegalensisOnly limited quantities are available for fuelwood, and trees of larger dimensions are undesirable because of difficulties with splitting and crosscutting. Hence, even if fuelwood is in short supply, larger-diameter sections are not utilized. The gross energy value of the wood is 19 990 kJ/kg.
Lagerstroemia speciosaThe gross energy value of L. speciosa wood is 18 855-19 230 kJ/kg.
Lawsonia inermisHenna is a suitable source of firewood.
Leucaena collinsiiThe species is valued for high quality fuelwood. spp. zacapana is particularly managed as a bush fallow on a 4-year rotation to produce high quality firewood.
Leucaena diversifoliaOne of the primary uses of the species is firewood and charcoal; its energy value is 900-19 300 kJ/kg.
Leucaena esculentaThe tree provides high quality fuelwood.
Leucaena leucocephalaL. leucocephala is an excellent firewood species with a specific gravity of 0.45-0.55 and a high calorific value of 4600 cal/kg. Wood burns steadily with little smoke, few sparks and produces less than 1% ash. The tree makes excellent charcoal with a heating value of 29 mJ/kg and good recovery values (25-30%). Addition of ground L. leucocephala to fuel oil for diesel engines was found to involve no harmful agents in the ash.
Leucaena pallidaL. pallida is used widely for firewood.
Leucaena salvadorensisThe wood is an excellent fuelwood because it is dense and is easily split and dried.
Leucaena trichandraThe wood is valued for firewood, which is rated as good quality and easy to split.
Lovoa swynnertoniiThe tree provides fuelwood.
Lovoa trichilioidesThe tree provides fuelwood.
Macadamia integrifoliaMacadamia shells may be used as fuel, generating sufficient energy to dry wet, in-shell nuts.
Macadamia tetraphyllaMacadamia shell may be used as fuel, generating sufficient energy to dry wet, in shell nuts.
Macaranga kilimandscharicaMacaranga is used as a firewood source.
Macaranga tanariusGood firewood is provided by Macaranga tanarius.
Maesopsis eminiiDue to its fast growth, M. eminii is widely planted for fuelwood.
Mallotus philippensisThe wood is often used as fuelwood.
Mammea americanaThe tree is used as fuel.
Mangifera indicaWith a calorific value of 4200 kcal/kg, the wood makes excellent charcoal and firewood.
Markhamia luteaTrees are a source of firewood and produce good charcoal. Fuelwood is used to cure tobacco in western Kenya.
Melaleuca quinquenerviaExuding resin as it burns, the wood is excellent fuel and makes good-quality charcoal. Also, the papery bark is easily ignited and has high heating value. Reported calorific value for the wood is 4400 kcal/kg and for bark 6160 kcal/kg, but there is great variability in these values between trees.
Melia azedarachFuelwood is a major use of M. azedarach. It has a calorific value is 5100 kcal/kg.
Melia volkensiiBranches lopped during routine management and to provide fodder are often left to dry in the field before being used for firewood. The firewood produces an unpleasant smoke, and the tree is said to produce poor quality charcoal.
Mesua ferreaUsed as firewood.
Metroxylon saguDextrose sugar extract from sago palm starch can be processed to yield power ethanol. The cortex of the trunk is also used for firing in paper mills. The bark may be used as a domestic fuel after drying.
Michelia champacaThe gross energy value of the heartwood is about 21 070 kJ/kg and the tree is used as fuelwood.
Milicia excelsaM. excelsa can be planted for the production of timber and charcoal.
Millettia duraThe tree is an important source of firewood and charcoal.
Millettia thonningiiThe wood and the woody dry pods which drop after releasing the seeds are a source of fuelwood.
Mimosa pigraWhen groundwater levels start falling at the beginning of the dry season, the defoliated stems and branches are left and become dry. These dry materials are collected and utilized as firewood by the low-income people living in the vicinity of the reservoirs. The use of this material as firewood releases the wood harvesting pressure in the upstream area of the reservoir.
Mimosa scabrellaProduces high-quality firewood; however, the charcoal produces a large amount of ash. Before the advent of the diesel locomotive, M. scabrella wood was grown to fuel railroads in parts of Brazil.
Moringa oleiferaThe soft and light wood is an acceptable firewood for cooking but makes poor charcoal. It has a density of 0.5-0.7 and yields approximately 4600 kcal/kg.
Moringa stenopetalaGrowing rapidly, these trees have softwood that is not particularly suitable for fuel. But because the supplies are so scarce, it is often used as a fuel in its natural range.
Morus albaMakes medium-quality fuelwood with a calorific value of 4370-4770 kcal/kg.
Morus nigraPruned and dead branches are suitable for firewood.
Musanga cecropioidesProvides poor quality firewood.
Newtonia buchananiiA good source of quality firewood.
Nuxia congestaThe branches are used as firesticks.
Ocotea usambarensisO. usambarensis is a good source of firewood and charcoal.
Olea capensisA viable species for fuelwood from which excellent charcoal can be made.
Olea europaea ssp. africanaIn Eritrea the villagers use wild olive extensively to provide fuelwood.
Olneya tesotaO. tesota is cut for fuelwood and charcoal production, widespread cutting of O. tesota has seriously reduced the numbers of these trees in areas of Mexico.
Orbignya phalerataThe endocarp is used to make an excellent charcoal. The dry fruit is made up of 11-14% outer shell, 14-25% mesocarp, 50-67% woody inner shell and 61% kernels. This charcoal is being increasingly sold to national and foreign buyers as industrial fuel. Husks are sometimes used to smoke rubber. The crude oil from the seeds is used for lighting lamps.
Osyris compressaThe wood has also been utilized as firewood.
Osyris lanceolataAlso used as a source of firewood
Ougeinia dalbergioidesSandan wood is a good fuel with a calorific value of 4 900-5 200 Kcal/kg.
Paraserianthes falcatariaWidely used for fuelwood and charcoal production in spite of its low density and energy value.
Parinari curatellifoliaP. curatellifolia gives good charcoal.
Parkia biglobosaBranches are sometimes lopped for firewood.
Parkinsonia aculeataSapwood yellowish and thick, and heartwood light or reddish-brown; wood moderately hard and heavy (specific gravity 0.6), fine textured, brittle; burns well and is used for firewood and charcoal.
Pausinystalia johimbeA preferred fuelwood species.
Peltophorum africanumP. africanum is a relatively good source of fuelwood.
Peltophorum dasyrhachisIt is suitable as firewood.
Peltophorum pterocarpumThe tree is used as fuelwood.
Pentaclethra macrolobaThe wood is a source of firewood
Pentaclethra macrophyllaIts empty dry fruit pods are used as fuelwood for cooking. The wood is highly suitable for fuelwood and charcoal making.
Phoenix dactyliferaThe wood can be used as fuelwood.
Phoenix reclinataWood is suitable for production of charcoal.
Phyllanthus acidusThe tree is used as fuelwood.
Piliostigma malabaricumThe wood is suitable material for charcoal and fuelwood, the energy value of the wood is about 18 100 kJ/kg.
Piliostigma thonningiiProvides fuelwood in considerable amounts, the advantage being its shrubby habit and multi-stemmed nature.
Pinus caribaeaP. caribaea, being a fast-growing species, can be used for fuelwood for both industrial and home use. However, it throws out sparks when burning.
Pinus merkusiiThe energy value of the wood is 20 300-23 200 kJ/kg.
Pinus patulaP. patula produces excellent fuelwood.
Pinus wallichianaThe wood is a good firewood but it gives off a pungent resinous smoke. The wood is rich in resin and can be splintered and used as a torch.
Pistacia integerrimaFuelwood and charcoal are obtained from P. integerrima.
Pithecellobium dulceFast-growing and coppices vigorously but due to its smokiness and low calorific value (5 177-5 600 kcal/kg), P. dulce wood is not of very high quality. In parts of India, it is planted and harvested to fuel brick kilns.
Pittosporum resiniferumThis tree produces a high octane oil that can directly be used as fuel. During the Second World War, the Japanese used it to power their tanks, though the tribal people of the Philippines have long appreciated it as a fuel for lamps. The oil is pressed from the nuts or seeds of the tree. It is reported that six trees would produce 320 litres of oil per year. The oil is quite sticky and rapidly turns resinous when laid thin. In an open dish, it burns strongly, although with a sooty flame.
Podocarpus falcatusP. falcatus is a suitable source of firewood.
Polyscias fulvaThe firewood of Polyscias species is of poor quality.
Polyscias kikuyuensisGenerally offers poor quality fuelwood.
Pometia pinnataThe wood is also used for charcoal production.
Pongamia pinnataWith a calorific value of 4 600 kcal/kg, pongam is commonly used as a fuelwood. The seed oil was formerly indispensable as an illuminant in lamps, but has been largely replaced by kerosene.
Populus ciliataThe lops and tops, rejects, wastes and material derived through intermittent prunings are used as fuelwood.
Populus deltoidesWood is used for fuel.
Populus euphraticaIts wood is moderately hard and light. The lops, tops, rejects, wastes and material derived through pruning are used as fuelwood. The calorific value is reported to be 5019 kcal/kg for sapwood and 5008 kcal/kg for the heartwood.
Prosopis africanaThe wood has a high calorific value of about 1720 joules/kg and produces excellent charcoal and firewood.
Prosopis albaP. alba makes excellent firewood in localities where little else is obtainable.
Prosopis chilensisWhen burnt P. chilensis ignites readily, has a high calorific value, emits intense heat, makes enduring embers and leaves little ash. The wood makes good charcoal and could be exploited commercially to supply industrial and domestic demand using portable kilns.
Prosopis cinerariaIn the Punjab, its rather scanty, purplish brown heartwood is preferred to other kinds for firewood. It is an excellent fuel, also giving high-quality charcoal (5,000 kcal/kg).
Prosopis glandulosaWood, chips and charcoal are excellent fuels, and the wood smoke lends a pleasant flavour to cooked foods.
Prosopis julifloraThe generally crooked stems and branches make good firewood and provide excellent charcoal. Charcoal from P. juliflora wood is used extensively in the USA as barbecue fuel; about 30% of the charcoal sold for this purpose originates from P. juliflora from the Sonora Desert in northern Mexico.
Prosopis tamarugoIt is used as fuelwood. In the part of the Atacama Desert in Northern Chile, the tamarugo stands are so over-exploited for firewood that they have been reduced to scattered stands.
Prunus africanaP. africana produces high-quality firewood.
Psidium guajavaWood makes excellent firewood and charcoal because of its abundance, natural propagation, and classification as an undesirable weed.
Pterocarpus erinaceusP. erinaceus produces a good charcoal.
Pterocarpus indicusAlthough the wood is not necessarily recommended as firewood, it certainly could be used for firewood. Some Pterocarpus burn green.
Pterocarpus lucensP. lucens is a suitable source of firewood.
Pterogyne nitensThe branches can be used as fuelwood.
Punica granatumTree branches used as firewood.
Pycnanthus angolensisThe seeds burn like candles and seed oil is used as an illuminant in West Africa.
Quercus floribundaIt is a good fuelwood and is used for making charcoal.
Quercus humboldtiiIt produces good firewood and charcoal.
Quercus semecarpifoliaIt makes good firewood and excellent charcoal; the calorific value of sapwood is 4879 k cal and of heartwood 4815 k call/kg of dry wood.
Rauvolfia caffraThe tree is a good source of fuel.
Rauvolfia vomitoriaUsed as firewood for instance in Sierra Leone.
Rhizophora mucronataThe trees are important for producing good quality charcoal and for firewood. A great advantage of Rhizophora L. in the eyes of firewood dealers is that it can easily be split.
Rhododendron arboreumThe wood is used as fuel and for making charcoal.
Rhus natalensisA provider of good fuelwood and charcoal.
Ricinodendron heudelotiiWood of R. heudelotii is not popular as a fuel as it burns very quickly.
Robinia pseudoacaciaR. pseudoacacia wood burns hot and slowly, like coal, and makes good charcoal. Wood energy yield is typical of temperate broadleaf trees, about 19.44 kJ/kg. Fuelwood plantations in South Korea coppice readily and may even be lopped annually, yielding 10-20 t/ha of fuel. In Hungary, R. pseudoacacia is often grown on small private farms for wood.
Salix babylonicaWood and branches of S. babylonica were traditionally used for fuelwood in China.
Salvadora oleoidesIt is an important source of fuelwood.
Salvadora persicaThe wood is sometimes used for firewood and charcoal. However, it is not used for cooking meat, as it leaves a foul taste.
Santalum albumThe wood has been used as a fuel but is generally considered too valuable for this purpose.
Santalum ellipticumIn Hawai‘i, Santalum spp. were sometimes used for firewood.
Santalum spicatumThe wood is an excellent fuel and has been used for firing brick kilns.
Sapindus mukorossiThe wood is used for charcoal production and as firewood.
Sapium ellipticumS. ellipticum is a source of firewood and is used to produce charcoal.
Sarcocephalus latifoliusOpepe wood is a source of firewood.
Schefflera volkensiiS. volkensii provides fuelwood of good quality.
Schima wallichiiS. wallichii produces good firewood. The energy value of the sapwood is about 19 980 kJ/kg.
Schinus molleThe wood of S. molle can be burned as both firewood and charcoal.
Schinus terebinthifoliusthe wood is also used for fuelwood and charcoal.
Schinziophyton rautaneniiNot an important firewood provider.
Schizolobium parahybumThe tree can provide fuelwood.
Securidaca longepedunculataS. longipedunculata can be burnt for firewood and charcoal.
Securinega flexuosaIt also yields a good fuelwood.
Senna atomariaSuitable because of its vigorous regrowth and biomass production. Has a heat of combustion of 19 megajoules /kg.
Senna siameaThe dense, dark-coloured wood of S. siamea makes good fuel, although it produces some smoke when burning. The energy value of the wood is 22 400 kJ/kg, and the density is 600-800 kg/m³. The wood was formerly preferred for locomotive engines. Its charcoal is also of excellent quality.
Senna singueanaThe wood is commonly used for fuel.
Senna spectabilisTree provides firewood and is used to produce charcoal.
Sesbania bispinosaS. bispinosa yields light, small-sized firewood. When fully grown and dried, it provides good fuel with a calorific value of 4281 kcal/kg.
Sesbania grandifloraThe wood is rather light and not highly regarded as a fuel because it smokes excessively when burning. Having a weight of only 500 kg/square m, it burns rapidly without much heat. But its fast growth and availability within a year of planting make it a locally popular fuelwood. The wood should be well dried, as it deteriorates in storage and becomes corky, dusty and unfit for burning. Its calorific value is 17.91 MJ/kg, with a high ash content (6%) and low percentage of carbon (11.7%).
Sesbania macranthaFor fuelwood, S. macrantha can be grown as individual plants, in hedgerows or in solid stands in many types of farming systems.
Sesbania rostrataDry stem are used as fuel e.g. in Madagascar.
Sesbania sesbanS. sesban is popular for firewood and charcoal because it produces a high woody biomass in a short time, which, although soft, is relatively smokeless, quick kindling and hot burning. The calorific yield for a 3-year-old tree is approximately 4350 kcal/kg.
Shorea javanicaThe lower part of the trunk is scarified from tapping for resin and hence can be used only for firewood.
Spondias mombinThe wood is suitable for firewood.
Spondias purpureaThe easily cut and brittle branches are potential fuelwood.
Steganotaenia araliaceaTree parts are used as fuelwood.
Sterculia urensThe tree is used as a fuelwood.
Stereospermum kunthianumWhere it occurs, the yellowish hardwood is used as firewood or low-quality charcoal that disintegrates directly into ashes.
Strychnos innocuaProvides excellent firewood that burns even when wet.
Strychnos spinosaS. spinosa provides firewood and charcoal.
Styrax tonkinensisWood from thinnings is generally used as firewood.
Swietenia mahagoniIn Haiti, much of the branch wood and most of the crooked stems are converted to charcoal, particularly in regions isolated from urban markets by poor roads.
Syzygium cordatumS. cordatum is popular as a source of firewood and charcoal.
Syzygium cuminiiS. cuminii wood has a specific gravity of 0.77 and burns well, giving off about 4 800 kcal/kg. It is a fast-growing tree, which provides excellent firewood and charcoal.
Syzygium guineenseS. guineense is used as firewood and in the production of charcoal.
Syzygium jambosThe tree grows back rapidly after cutting to a stump and consequently yields a continuous supply of small wood for fuel. Rose apple wood makes very good charcoal.
Tabebuia donnell-smithiiT. donnell-smithi is used as fuelwood.
Tamarindus indicaProvides good firewood with calorific value of 4 850 kcal/kg, it also produces an excellent charcoal.
Tamarix aphyllaBurns reasonably well though slow to catch fire. Used for firewood and charcoal (calorific value, 4835 kcal/kg). Leaf litter and small branches burn poorly, perhaps because of their high salt content. It gives an offensive odour if burnt green.
Tarchonanthus camphoratusProvides high quality fuelwood.
Teclea nobilisProvides good fuelwood.
Tecoma stansTrees provide firewood and charcoal.
Tecomaria capensisThe plant can be used as firewood.
Tectona grandisTeakwood has been used in the manufacture of charcoal and as fuelwood, but nowadays it is usually considered too valuable for anything but pruning remnants and other rejects to be used in this way.
Tephrosia candidaWhen the species becomes woody with age, it provides suitable fuelwood.
Tephrosia purpureaThe energy value of the wood of T. purpurea is 14 500 kJ/kg. In northern India, dry plants are collected for fuel.
Terminalia arjunaIt makes excellent charcoal and firewood, with calorific values of 5030 Kcal/kg and 5128 Kcal/kg for the sapwood and heartwood, respectively.
Terminalia belliricaThe tree yields a good-quality firewood and charcoal with calorific value of sapwood being 5000 kcal/kg.
Terminalia browniiT. brownii is a good source of timber and charcoal.
Terminalia ivorensisThe wood of T. ivorensis is used for firewood and charcoal.
Terminalia prunioidesProvides good firewood and makes excellent charcoal.
Terminalia sericeaThe species make good charcoal and firewood
Theobroma cacaoThe cocoa bean testa has a calorific value of 16 000-19 000 BTU/kg, a little higher than that for wood.
Tipuana tipuT. tipu is a source of firewood and is used in the production of charcoal.
Tithonia diversifoliaTithonia provides farmers with firewood.
Treculia africanaT. africana is a suitable source of firewood and charcoal.
Trema orientalisA fast-growing species which coppices well, it can provide plenty of firewood and excellent charcoal which is even suitable for making gunpowder and fireworks.
Trichilia emeticaA fuelwood species, T. emetica is commonly used for firewood.
Uapaca kirkianaU. kirkiana charcoal is highly regarded, and many trees are cut for this purpose. It is also a good source of firewood.
Vangueria infaustaV. infausta is a good source of firewood.
Vangueria madagascariensisThis multibranched shrub or tree is popular as a source of both firewood and charcoal.
Vernonia amygdalinaBoth firewood and charcoal are derived form V. amygdalina.
Vitellaria paradoxaExcellent-quality firewood that burns with a fierce heat. The charcoal is not good quality, however; it burns rapidly and is friable and, although it provides enough heat for domestic use, is not suitable for iron-working. The sticky black residue from fat extraction can also be used as a substitute for kerosene when lighting firewood. Due to its value as a fruit tree, V. paradoxa is seldom cut for fuel.
Vitex donianaWood is used for firewood and charcoal.
Vitex keniensisV. keniensis is a suitable source of firewood.
Vitex negundoStems are used as firewood.
Vitex parvifloraV. parviflora is a source of firewood.
Vitex payosThe tree is used for fuel.
Vitex pubescensV. pubescence wood produces a high quality charcoal that is compatible and competitive with mangrove charcoal in international markets.
Warburgia salutarisWood is used as firewood and charcoal.
Warburgia ugandensisThe wood has a high oil content and burns well with an incense-like smell.
Ximenia americanaFirewood and charcoal are the chief uses of the wood, because the trunk is usually too small to make it useful for timber.
Ximenia caffraIt is used as firewood.
Xylopia aethiopicaA good source of firewood
Zanthoxylum chalybeumZ. chalybeum is a good firewood tree; it burns easily.
Zanthoxylum gilletiiThe tree produces good quality charcoal and firewood.
Ziziphus abyssinicaThe species is a source of firewood and is used in the production of charcoal.
Ziziphus mauritianaZ. mauritiana produces excellent firewood (sapwood has 4900 kcals/kg) and good charcoal. Its drooping branches are easily accessible for harvesting.
Ziziphus mucronataThe wood is hard and makes good firewood and charcoal.
Zizyphus nummulariaIt is a source of high calorific value (4400 kcal/kg) fuel and charcoal
Zizyphus spina-christiIts wood yields an excellent charcoal, but given the current status of the species, and its slow growth rate, this usage is certainly to be discouraged.