Artocarpus lakoocha

Invasive species Disclaimer

In view of the fact that some tree species are invasive, the world Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) has put in place a policy document on Invasive Alien Species, currently under draft available at Here.

For more information on this subject, please refer to
100 of the World's worst Invasive and Alien Species.




Species Index    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Multiple Criteria Search


Abelmoschus moschatus
Acacia aneura
Acacia angustissima
Acacia aulacocarpa
Acacia auriculiformis
Acacia catechu
Acacia cincinnata
Acacia crassicarpa
Acacia elatior
Acacia erioloba
Acacia etbaica
Acacia ferruginea
Acacia glauca
Acacia holosericea
Acacia karroo*
Acacia koa
Acacia laeta
Acacia lahai
Acacia leptocarpa
Acacia leucophloea
Acacia mangium
Acacia mearnsii*
Acacia melanoxylon
Acacia mellifera
Acacia nilotica subsp nilotica
Acacia pachycarpa
Acacia pennatula
Acacia polyacantha ssp. polyacantha
Acacia saligna
Acacia senegal
Acacia seyal
Acacia sieberiana
Acacia tortilis
Acacia xanthophloea
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius
Adansonia digitata
Adenanthera pavonina
Aegle marmelos
Afzelia africana
Afzelia quanzensis
Agathis macrophylla
Agathis philippinensis
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus excelsa
Ailanthus triphysa
Albizia adianthifolia
Albizia amara
Albizia anthelmintica
Albizia chinensis
Albizia coriaria
Albizia ferruginea
Albizia gummifera
Albizia julibrissin
Albizia lebbeck
Albizia odoratissima
Albizia procera
Albizia saman
Albizia versicolor
Albizia zygia
Aleurites moluccana
Allanblackia floribunda
Allanblackia stuhlmannii
Allanblackia ulugurensis
Alnus acuminata
Alnus cordata
Alnus japonica
Alnus nepalensis
Alnus rubra
Alphitonia zizyphoides
Alstonia boonei
Alstonia congensis
Alstonia scholaris
Altingia excelsa
Anacardium occidentale
Andira inermis
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona senegalensis
Annona squamosa
Anogeissus latifolia
Anthocephalus cadamba
Antiaris toxicaria
Antidesma bunius
Araucaria bidwillii
Araucaria cunninghamii
Arbutus unedo
Areca catechu
Arenga pinnata
Argania spinosa
Artemisia annua
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus camansi
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Artocarpus integer
Artocarpus lakoocha
Artocarpus mariannensis
Asimina triloba
Ateleia herbert-smithii
Aucomea klaineana
Averrhoa bilimbi
Averrhoa carambola
Azadirachta excelsa
Azadirachta indica
Azanza garckeana
Related Links
foliage
© TopTropicals.com

Artocarpus lakoocha is a medium to large deciduous tree with a spreading crown, dropping its leaves for a short time at the beginning of the dry season. The bark is grey and the slash is deep red with milky latex. 

Leaves alternate, 10-25 cm long, elliptical, pointed and leathery. 

Flowers unisexual-male and female flowers in separate spherical heads but on the same tree. Male flowers are yellow-orange while the female are reddish.

Fruit is a syncarp (the entire female inflorescence forms a fruit), irregularly rounded, green when young, turning yellow at the time of maturity, later brown. The size differs but the diameter is typically 5-10 cm while fruit weights 200-350 g. The number of seeds/fruit varies accordingly, but typically there are 10-30 per fruit.

Seeds irregular and vary in size like the fruits. At maturity, most seeds are about one cm long, more or less flattened and pointed at the embryo end, the seed-coat is thin and white. The seeds contain sticky white latex. 

The generic name comes from the Greek words ‘artos’ (bread) and ‘karpos’ (fruit) while the species name is derived from the fruit’s common name in India.

Ecology

It is often found along banks of stream usually in lowland areas and in well-protected spots. In many places the populations are gradually decreasing due to extensive exploitation and poor seed viability.

Young trees withstand moderate shade, but older trees grow best in full light. It grows best on deep permeable soils with a good supply of moisture and does not thrive on poorer sites. Trees can withstand a dry season of up to 3 months. Young seedlings are badly damaged by frost, and the tree should not be planted in frosty areas.

Native range
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam

Tree management

A. lakoocha needs care and attention. Individual farmers plant few trees on their farms.
For plantations establishment, 1 m x 1 m spacing is recommended with thorough weeding and fertilizer application, for the best production of fodder. In Nepal, plants 18 months old (average 1.6 m in height) yielded 400 kg of fodder per ha.

When the fruits have turned yellow, the seeds inside are mature. Seeds that are extracted from green fruits have low viability and only ripe fruits should be collected. As the ripe fruits are readily eaten by monkeys and birds, collection must be well timed. The fruits should be collected while still on the trees. Freshly collected fruits and seed have a high moisture content and must be treated gently. They must be packed in bags that allow ventilation, protected from direct sun and brought to the processing site as quickly as possible. The yields are in the order of about 80 kg of fruit/tree. There are 50 g of seed/kg of fruits. 

The traditional procedure is to leave the seeds inside the fruit until just before sowing, if a cold storage facility is not available. However, seed stored inside the fruit quickly lose viability within a week. To extract the seeds, the fruits are de-pulped manually with or without water. As the seed-coat is thin, the seeds are fragile and once extracted, must be treated gently.

Seeds are recalcitrant. Mature seeds extracted from yellow fruits have moisture content of 50-55% and do not tolerate drying to low moisture content. They should be stored at 5°C. If the seeds are extracted before storage they should be dried slightly and never below 40% moisture content. There are 1600-5000 seeds per kg

It is often found along banks of stream usually in lowland areas and in well-protected spots. In many places the populations are gradually decreasing due to extensive exploitation and poor seed viability.

Young trees withstand moderate shade, but older trees grow best in full light. It grows best on deep permeable soils with a good supply of moisture and does not thrive on poorer sites. Trees can withstand a dry season of up to 3 months. Young seedlings are badly damaged by frost, and the tree should not be planted in frosty areas.

A. lakoocha is usually propagated by seeds, cuttings or stumps. Naturally, birds and monkeys eat the fruits scattering the seeds under trees, where, after the rains, numerous seedlings may be found. Root cuttings approximately 5 cm long or stem cuttings of 20 cm long with at least three buds, taken from the lower part of the stem of 1.5 year old seedling is recommended.

The seeds can be sown in polypots (10 x 18 cm) or in seedbeds. Normally two seeds per pot are sown and surplus seedlings pricked out into another pot. 20-25% compost should be added to the potting mixture.

If sown in seedbeds, the seedbed should be raised. About 1 kg of seed used per sq. m. After 3-4 weeks (when the seedlings are about 5 cm tall) they are pricked out. The seedlings are fairly robust and two to three weeks after germination, shade against sun and rain is no longer needed. However, the seedlings must be protected from frost. Sowing is done during the monsoon because of the short viability of the seed. The seedlings must remain in the nursery until the next monsoon (nearly one year later), when they attain 20-25 cm height.

 The fruits and male flowers are eaten raw, boiled, steamed or roasted.

Fodder: In Nepal it is highly valued as a fodder tree in the lower foothills of the Himalayas. The leaves contain about 16% crude protein and one tree produces between 60 and 200 kg fresh fodder in a year. It is fed to lactating animals and considered one of the most important milk producing forages.

The trees are an important source of firewood.

Timber: The wood is hard and termite resistant with a weight of about 640 kg/m3. It is  used in heavy construction, poles, beams, furniture boats, wood based materials and plywood. 

Shade or shelter: A perennial tree crop that provides beneficial shade and cooler microclimate for humans, plants and animals beneath its canopy.

Tannin or dyestuff: The tree bark (containing 8-9% tannin) is chewed like betel nut. The wood and roots yield a lavish colour dye.

Lipids: The fat extracted from the seed is a light yellow liquid, viscous at room temperature.

Medicine: The root is an astringent and is used as a purgative; when macerated it was used as a poultice for skin ailments. The bark is used to treat headache.

Ornamental: Occasionally grown as an ornamental plant.

Soil improver: The tree can be used to provide mulch.

Intercropping: It is an important component of traditional agroforestry systems. The trees are integrated into mixed cropping systems with other crop

Latex or rubber: A sticky latex is present in all parts of the tree and has many uses.