Chukrasia tabularis

Invasive species Disclaimer

In view of the fact that some tree species are invasive, the world Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) has put in place a policy document on Invasive Alien Species, currently under draft available at Here.

For more information on this subject, please refer to
100 of the World's worst Invasive and Alien Species.




Species Index    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Multiple Criteria Search


Abelmoschus moschatus
Acacia aneura
Acacia angustissima
Acacia aulacocarpa
Acacia auriculiformis
Acacia catechu
Acacia cincinnata
Acacia crassicarpa
Acacia elatior
Acacia erioloba
Acacia etbaica
Acacia ferruginea
Acacia glauca
Acacia holosericea
Acacia karroo*
Acacia koa
Acacia laeta
Acacia lahai
Acacia leptocarpa
Acacia leucophloea
Acacia mangium
Acacia mearnsii*
Acacia melanoxylon
Acacia mellifera
Acacia nilotica subsp nilotica
Acacia pachycarpa
Acacia pennatula
Acacia polyacantha ssp. polyacantha
Acacia saligna
Acacia senegal
Acacia seyal
Acacia sieberiana
Acacia tortilis
Acacia xanthophloea
Acrocarpus fraxinifolius
Adansonia digitata
Adenanthera pavonina
Aegle marmelos
Afzelia africana
Afzelia quanzensis
Agathis macrophylla
Agathis philippinensis
Ailanthus altissima
Ailanthus excelsa
Ailanthus triphysa
Albizia adianthifolia
Albizia amara
Albizia anthelmintica
Albizia chinensis
Albizia coriaria
Albizia ferruginea
Albizia gummifera
Albizia julibrissin
Albizia lebbeck
Albizia odoratissima
Albizia procera
Albizia saman
Albizia versicolor
Albizia zygia
Aleurites moluccana
Allanblackia floribunda
Allanblackia stuhlmannii
Allanblackia ulugurensis
Alnus acuminata
Alnus cordata
Alnus japonica
Alnus nepalensis
Alnus rubra
Alphitonia zizyphoides
Alstonia boonei
Alstonia congensis
Alstonia scholaris
Altingia excelsa
Anacardium occidentale
Andira inermis
Annona cherimola
Annona muricata
Annona reticulata
Annona senegalensis
Annona squamosa
Anogeissus latifolia
Anthocephalus cadamba
Antiaris toxicaria
Antidesma bunius
Araucaria bidwillii
Araucaria cunninghamii
Arbutus unedo
Areca catechu
Arenga pinnata
Argania spinosa
Artemisia annua
Artocarpus altilis
Artocarpus camansi
Artocarpus heterophyllus
Artocarpus integer
Artocarpus lakoocha
Artocarpus mariannensis
Asimina triloba
Ateleia herbert-smithii
Aucomea klaineana
Averrhoa bilimbi
Averrhoa carambola
Azadirachta excelsa
Azadirachta indica
Azanza garckeana

Chukrasia tabularis is an evergreen or deciduous, monoecious, medium-sized, sometimes fairly large tree up to 30 (max. 40) m tall; bole branchless for up to 18 (max. 32) m, with a diameter of up to 110 (max. 175) cm, without buttresses; bark surface rusty brown or deep brown, deeply fissured or cracked, with lenticels, inner bark reddish. 

Leaves paripinnate, 30-50 cm long, with 4-6 pairs of opposite or alternate, entire, asymmetrical and acuminate leaflets (imparipinnate and lobed or incised when juvenile)with dentate margins, glabrous or with simple hairs.

Flowers unisexual, small, in axillary (sometimes appearing terminal) thyrses, tetramerous or pentamerous, up to 16 mm long; calyx lobed; petals free, contorted, reflexed in open flowers, white, in 10-30 cm long panicles.

Fruit an erect woody ovoid or ellipsoid capsule 2.5-5.0 cm long, opening by 3-5 valves from the apex; valves separating to a woody outer and inner layer, apex of those in the inner layer deeply bifid; locules appearing as 1 locule due to the breaking of the septae; columella with sharp ridges. Seeds 60-100 per locule, flat, with terminal wings arranged in layers on the central columella.

Seed about 1.2 cm long, flat and with a brown membranous wing twice the length of the remaining portion of the seed. Cotyledons thin, radicle facing the wing; endosperm absent.

Ecology

C. tabularis is usually found scattered in lowland evergreen forest or deciduous forest. It is a dominant tree, occurring in top canopy in natural forests. In peninsular Malaysia, it occasionally occurs as a colonizer of bare land, including road cuttings. In Sarawak, it is notably found on limestone. C. tabularis usually avoids heavy and wet soils. It is regarded as a pioneer species and common in former shifting cultivation areas. It thrives in areas with uni- as well as bimodal rainfall regimes.

Native range
Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam

Tree management

In India, growth of seedlings proved moderately fast over the 1st 2 years. After 2 years, the plants had reached a height of 1.2-2.1 m; after 3 years, 2.8-3.4 m with a diameter of 4-5 cm; after 6 years, 5.5 m tall and a diameter of 15 cm, indicating a mean annual increment of 2.5 cm. Another source in India records a height of 13 m and a mean diameter of 5.2 cm for 5-year-old plants. A planting trial in western Java, using seeds from Sumatra, showed a mean height of 13 m and a mean diameter of 18 cm 10 years after planting. The tree coppices particularly well. First major thinning is required in the 4th year and thereafter every 5 years. The 1st thinning should be comparatively light as the species tends to branch and fork.

Seed storage behaviour is orthodox; loss in viability after 1 year of hermetic air-dry storage at room temperature; little loss in viability (by 4%) following 6 months of hermetic storage at 10 deg. C with 6% mc. Fresh seed retain its viability for a relatively short period, about 3 months. There are about 50,000-100 000 seeds/kg.

C. tabularis is usually found scattered in lowland evergreen forest or deciduous forest. It is a dominant tree, occurring in top canopy in natural forests. In peninsular Malaysia, it occasionally occurs as a colonizer of bare land, including road cuttings. In Sarawak, it is notably found on limestone. C. tabularis usually avoids heavy and wet soils. It is regarded as a pioneer species and common in former shifting cultivation areas. It thrives in areas with uni- as well as bimodal rainfall regimes.

C. tabularis regenerates naturally through seed, which is generally satisfactory, as well as through coppice. Capsules are dried in shade until they split open, and the seeds are released by gentle tumbling or shaking. Direct sun drying should be avoided, as it may cause overheating and desiccation of the sensitive seeds. Seeds require no pretreatment and are sown with overhead shade in light porous soil. Germination is fair: in Malaysia 35% of the seeds sown germinated in 1-2.5 weeks, in India 80-90% in 1-4 weeks. Where seed is plentiful, the best method is broadcast sowing in strips 0.6 m wide and 1.8 m apart. Best results have been obtained by raising seedlings in well-drained boxes and pots before transplanting. Seedlings are pricked out and transplanted to the nursery beds when about 1 month old and 6-8 cm high. The seedlings are very sensitive to drought.   After 6 months the seedlings are ready for planting. This is done during the first rains or during the early part of the second rains. The species can also be propagated by air-layering, entire transplants or stumps. Stem cuttings from juvenile material (4-5-year-old trees) give the best result. Direct sowing has been done with success.

The wood can also be used as a fuel.

Timber:  Heartwood is pale reddish-brown, yellowish-red to red, darkening to dark yellowish-brown, reddish-brown to medium dark brown on exposure, sharply differentiated from the yellowish-white, pale yellowish-brown, pinkish-brown or greyish-brown sapwood; dark streaks may be rather prominent. The density is 625-800 kg/cubic m at 15% mc. The grain is interlocked and sometimes wavy, producing a rose figure; texture moderately fine but uneven. Freshly cut wood has a fragrant odour, but dried wood has no characteristic odour or taste. Planed surfaces have a high lustrous satiny sheen. The timber is highly prized for high-grade cabinetwork, decorative panelling, interior joinery such as doors, windows and light flooring, and for carving, toys and turnery. It is also used for railway sleepers, ship and boat building, furniture, musical instruments (including pianos), packing cases, sporting goods, lorry bodies, mallet heads, anvil blocks, brush wares, drawing equipment, rifle butts, veneer and pulp. In India, the timber is also used for light to medium-heavy construction work, such as for posts, beams, scantlings and planks. The wood peels well and gives exceedingly fine veneer. It is suitable for commercial and moisture proof plywood.

Tannin or dyestuff:  The flowers contain a red and a yellow dye. The young leaves and bark contain 22% and 15% of tannin respectively.

Medicine:  An extract of the bark has powerful astringent properties and has been used as a febrifuge.

Gum or resin:  A yellow, transparent gum exudes from the trunk and is marketed in admixture with other gums.

Intercropping: The straight bole and self-pruning ability of C. tabularis make it a suitable tree for growing in combination with crops, such as banana, Citrus spp. and guava. Its coppicing and pollarding ability make it particularly suitable for home gardens.